Monday, September 10, 2007

My Time in the Blessed Company of

The King of Gnostics
Hazrat `Abdul Hakim Sharaf Qadiri (RA)

By Monawwar Ateeq

HAZRAT `Allamah `Abdul Hakim Sharaf Qadiri (Rahmatullahi alayh) was born in Mirzapur in the home of Mouwlana Allah Ditta on 24th Sha’ban 1363h (13th August 1944). His family migrated to Lahore whilst he was a child and he started his primary education there. He thereafter studied under the leading Ulama of his era among them were Muhadith-e-Azam Pakistan Mouwlana Sardar Ahmad Qadiri, the spiritual mentor of his mother, `Allamah Gulam Rasool Rizwi commentator of Sahih Bukhari, Mufti-e-Azam Pakistan Sayyid Abul Barakat Ahmad Qadiri son of Sayyid Deedar `Ali Shah Alwari, Mufti `Abdul Qayyum Hazarawi ex-President of Jamia Nizamiya, and Ustaadh al-Ulama `Allamah `Ata Muhammad Bandyalawi[1], senior teacher at Jamia Mazhariya Bandyal. He surpassed his peers in combining between the inner and outer sciences and was renowned for his mastery in the rational sciences (ma`quwlat). Among his living peers are `Allamah `Ali Ahmad Sidehlwi the Musnid of Lahore and `Allamah Gulam Rasool Sa`eedi the Muhadith of Karachi, who studied Jami` Tirmidhi together with him at Jamia Mazhariya Bandyal.

Hazrat was also a Muhadith and had a lot of interest in the chains of Hadith. He narrates from the abovementioned scholars and from Sayyid `Abdurahman Kattani of Morocco, the Mufti of Egypt Muhammad `Ali Jum`ah, Sayyid Muhammad `Alawi Maliki, Shaykh Fadhl al-Rahman Madani, Mufti Hassan bin Muhammad al-Ghumari, Sayyid Malik al-`Arabi al-Sanusi al-Madani, Shaykh Muhammad `Ali Murad Shami al-Madani, `Allamah Shareef al-Haq Amjadi, Mufti Akhtar Raza Khan al-Azhari, Sayyid Ahmad Sa`eed Kazimi, Muhadith-e-Kabir Dhiya al-Mustafa Qadiri, `Allamah `Abdul Haq Bandyalawi and others.

Sayyid Abul Barakat Ahmad became the Spiritual Mentor (Murshid) of Hazrat Sharaf and many other Shuyukh also gave him khilafat in various Sufi pathways among them are: `Allamah Rayhan Raza who received it from Hujjat al-Islam Hamid Raza and Mufti-e-Azam Hind Mustafa Raza Khan both of whom received it from their father and from Sayyid Ahmad Nuri Barakati. Shaykh Fadhl al-Rahman Madani son of Qutb-e-Madina Dhiya al-Din Madani gave Hazrat Ijaza in his father’s silsilah. Among the others are: Sayyid Mas`ud Ahmad Rizwi, Sayyid Muhammad Ameen Miya Barakati, Sayyid Ahmad `Ali Rizwi, Sayyid Ahmad Ashraf Ashrafi Geelani, Khawajah Muhammad Sadiq of Gulhar Kotli, `Allamah Shareef al-Haq Amjadi, Sayyid Muratib Shah and Sayyid Na’eem Ashraf.

Hazrat’s Murshid: Sayyid Abul Barakat Ahmad
Hazrat says in Shajarah Haiy Tariqat: “This needy of Allah was the head teacher at Daar al-Ulum Islamiya Rahmaniya in Haripur Hazarah, when I pondered about seeking a perfect murshid. After constant contemplation, I chose Sayyid Sahib (Sayyid Abul Barakat Ahmad Qadiri of Lahore) who was a handsome embodiment of knowledge and practice, and was also the Khalifa of the Imam of Ahl al-Sunnah; Mouwlana Shah Ahmad Raza Khan Barelwi. Thus, I traveled to Lahore and asked him to accept my request to which he replied: “come the day after tomorrow”. This was a manner of the Mashayikh as they would judge whether the seeker is a true one or not. Due to their extra grace upon me, I was pretty frank therefore replied: “when a non-believer wants to utter the shahadah, it must not be delayed and he must be taught it straight away”, to which he remarked “la hawla wa la quwwata! What do you mean by this?” I said: “I want to repent on your hands, and you are instructing me to come a day after the following” upon hearing this he said “fine, so come to me at this instant” and thereafter took my pledge in the prestigious Rizwi Silsilah, this was on the 16th of Muharram 1395h, 25th March 1970.

Similarly, I requested him to grant me permission in his chain of transmission in Hadith, and recited some Hadiths of Tirmidhi before him. He was extremely benevolent with me and honored me with it whilst documenting my name on it with his own pen writing “My brother in the love of Allah, Muhammad Abdul Hakim son of Mouwlana Allah-Ditta Sahib of Lahore” Whereas Sayyid Sahib had a stringent procedure in giving his sanad[2]. Mouwlana Qadhi Muhammad Muzaffar Iqbal Rizwi, may Allah increase his noble life, head of Jamia Nu`maniya of Lahore, once informed me that when Sayyid Sahib used to teach at the Dehli Gate Madrasah[3] he would give the students who studied Hadith under him his Sanad certificate, but did not sign it until two or three years later! Upon my request, he also gave me Ijaza in reciting Dala’il al-Khayrat. May Allah most High have mercy on him and be pleased with him”[4]

Sayyid Hamdullah Jaan Afgani, a skilled teacher of Arabic grammar who taught at Data Darbar for eighteen years, informed Hazrat Sharaf Sahib Rahmatullahi alayh that Mouwlana Muhammad Jaan Sabir of Deerah Ismail Khan used to study Hadith under Sayyid Abul Barakat Ahmad. In one of the lessons, Sayyid Sahib said “whosoever studying Hadith does not see the Messenger of Allah upon him be peace and blessings during his studies, should consider his studies unaccepted”. Muhammad Jaan Sabir had not seen the Messenger of Allah yet he had been studying for nearly eight months. One afternoon, after his classes, Mouwlana Sabir went to his room that was directly situated above Sayyid Sahibs, and sat their crying upon his loss and wept until he fell asleep in that state in which his eyes were blessed with the vision of Rasulullah (upon him be peace and blessings). From beneath, Sayyid Sahib exclaimed: “Mouwlana Sabir! So have you now been blessed with the noble vision? Congratulations!” “Yes! He was benevolent with me!” replied Mouwlana Sabir. [5]

Sayyid Abul Barakat Ahmad was the son of the massive Muhadith and Faqih of Alwar who later migrated to Lahore, Sayyid Deedar `Ali Shah Alwari. Sayyid Abul Barakat completed several classical texts in various disciplines with his father and graduated under Mouwlana Sayyid Muhammad Na`eemudin Muradabadi after having completed Qazi Mubarak, Hamdullah, al-Ufuq al-Mubeen, Sadra, Sharh al-Aqa’id, books in Medicine and the six books of Hadith with him in 1337h/1919. He thereafter completed the six books again with his father and received Ijaza in them. In the year of his graduation, he traveled to Bareily Shareef, India, with his father and they both took the Rizwi Silsilah and absolute Ijaza[6] from the Unrivalled Imam, Shah Ahmad Raza Khan (may Allah have mercy on them all). Sayyid Sahib remained in Bareiley Shareef for a period of time and practiced Ifta under him, this is why his manner of writing has the same style as of the Great Imam of Bareily. In his appearance and beauty, Sayyid Sahib was similar to Sayyid `Ali Hussain Ashrafi Kachouchawi who was called “Shabeeh-e-Gawth-e-Azam” by Imam Ahmad Raza Khan in a Persian couplet.

Bear in mind that Sayyid Sahib’s Murshid in bay`ah was Sayyid `Ali Hussain Ashrafi and talab and Khilafat was with Imam-e-Ahl-e-Sunnat Shah Ahmad Raza Khan. Likewise, Sayyid Sahib’s father, Sayyid Deedar `Ali Shah, better known as “Sanad al-Muhaditheen” chief of Hadith masters, was a Mureed of Shah Fadhl al-Rahman Muradabadi who was a student of Shah `Abdul `Aziz Dihlawi and Mureed and Khalifa of Shah Muhammad Afaq. From this fact we learn the high status and prestigious rank of Imam Ahmad Raza Khan that the leading Ulama would take Tariqa from him after they had completed their studies.

I have recorded detailed chains of Hadith for the father and son in my recent Arabic collection of chains of hadith of the Ahl al-Sunnah Ulama of the subcontinent, titled “Fat’h al-Qawiy” published recently in Damascus.

My Relation with Hazrat
`Allamah `Abdul Hakim Sharaf Qadiri’s affection towards me (May his grave be filled with tranquility and light) was of a similar nature of his Shaykh’s with him. I always considered him my spiritual father and Allah Most High has poured immense love of his into my heart. His knowledge combined with practice and humbleness made him shine out from among his peers. He was an embodiment of Sunna and Taqwa. Hazrat never complained about dunya and lived a simple life, though he could have enjoyed the luxuries of this life if he desired. I was told by an authentic source that Hazrat and his family spent over 20 years in a small 2 bedroom flat provided by Jamia Nizamiya when he taught there up until 2001!

In 2006, I was blessed to meet Hazrat in the month of Rabi` al-Awwal for the third time, and many times thereafter at his home in Lahore, at his Maktabah Qadiriya (Daata Darbar) and at the Madrasa of Mouwlana `Abdul Gafoor. I met Hazrat twice before in the UK in 2001 once at the Imam Ahmad Raza Conference in Bradford, having the memory of him sitting behind the stage crying with his eyes lowered (and this was his state at most times), and the second time was when he visited us at Hazrat Sultan Bahu Trust and examined me in Fiqh, Bab al-Jana’iz from al-Ikhtiyaar.

Hazrat is the teacher of both of my teachers, `Allamah Rasul Bakhsh Sa`eedi (founder of Madrasa Faizan-e-Rasul, Birmingham) from whom I took Sarf, Nahw, Adab, Usul al-Fiqh, Fiqh, Usul al-Hadith, Hadith, Tafsir, Mantiq, and Mufti Yar Muhammad Qadiri (senior teacher at Hazrat Sultan Bahu Trust, Birmingham) with whom I studied major books in Tafsir, Balagah, Fiqh, Aqa’id, Usul al-Fiqh, Falsafah and Mantiq.

Before I traveled to Pakistan in 2006, I had been in contact with Hazrat via telephone and had earned many of his duas supporting me to spread the teachings of Ahl al-Sunnah. In my first conversation that I noted in my diary dated 18th of December 2005 at 2pm I informed Hazrat that I am his Grand Student and informed him of the Sunnaconnect projects to which he replied “you are the sign of the acceptance of my efforts”. Hazrat said a similar statement to `Allamah Rasul Bakhsh Sa`eedi, my teacher and Hazrat’s student, over a telephone conversation regarding my stay in Lahore, as we finished dhikr on a Thursday at the Madrasa of Mouwlana `Abdul Gafoor saying “I have witnessed the signs of acceptance of my efforts in the likes of Monawwar Ateeq”.

After several visits to Hazrat’s house and many days of suhbah and learning various Dhikr with perseverance, I requested Hazrat to accept my talab in the prestigious Rizwi Silsilah. He asked about my bay`ah and I informed him that it was with my righteous father. He brought out his Ijazah and wrote in it my name with his pen in the following manner “I give Ijazat and Khilafat to Mouwalna `Allamah Monawwar Ateeq May Allah preserve him, son of Mouwlana Muhammad Abdullah Ateeq Sahib May Allah prolong his life, from Azad Kashmir, living in Birmingham, in the Qadiri Rizwi Barakati, Naqshbandi Mujaddidi, Shadhili, Rifa`i, and Ashrafi paths” I feel undeserving of these words and unworthy of the kindness of Hazrat Rahmatullahi alayh, but believe they are a dua for me that will Insha Allah be accepted. He also gave Khilafat and Ijaza to my Noble father Shaykhi wa sayyidi Muhammad Abdullah Ateeq (may Allah prolong his life with health more ibadah). This was on the 3rd of Rabi` al-Awwal 1427h.

As for Ijaza in Hadith and the entire Islamic sciences, I asked Hazrat to kindly present it to me so I can be connected to the great luminaries of the Ahl al-Sunnah through him, so he offered it to me and wrote “the pious son Muhammad Monawwar Ateeq Rizwi may Allah- Most Blessed and Elevated- employ him to spread the propagation of Islam” and this was a day before I received Khilafat from him on 2nd Rabi` al-Awwal 1427h. This Ijaza is numbered 937.

It was the mere love and enormous affection of Hazrat for me that during my last visit to Lahore, he called me to his abode and deputised (tawkeel) me in giving Ijaza of Hadith and in the Islamic Sciences on his behalf to the Ulama, and penned this on his personalised letterhead with a beautiful wording. This gift is dated 22nd Jamadi al-Uwla 1427h in Hazrat’s handwriting, Rahmatullah alayh. The wording is:

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
الحمد لله وحده والصلوة والسلام على من لا نبي بعده وعلى آله وأصحابه أجمعين أما بعد:
فقد وكلت أخي الفاضل منور عتيق حفظه الله تعالى أن يعطي عني إجازة رواية الحديث الشريف والعلوم الدينية من هو أهله من العلماء كما أجازني به المشايخ الكبار وتفصيل أسامهم مسطور في الجواهر الغالية من الأسانيد العالية، والله الموفق.
وأوصيه باتباع ما جاء به سيدنا ومولانا محمد رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وجرى به السلف الصالح رحمهم الله تعالى
وكتبه محمد عبد الحكيم شرف القادري
المقيم بمدينة لاهور باكستان

I received numerous Ijazas from Hazrat (Rahmatullahi alayh). Four of them Hazrat gave me directly and the others came to me recently through the post by courtesy of my teacher and Hazrat’s dear colleague the Musnid of Lahore `Ali Ahmad Sindehlwi (May Allah prolong his life and extend his benefit to all).

On one of my early visits in Rabi` al-Awwal, Hazrat gave me his revised and edited manuscript on Hadith chains titled “al-Durr al-Manzum fi Asaneed Bahr al-Ulum” by Muhammad Ateeq Ansari Lakhnouwi on the chains of transmissions of Bahr al-Ulum `Abdul `Ali Lackhnouwi[7]. He opened the last two pages and told me to read from the manuscript. So I did, and it was an astounding account of Bahr al-Ulum’s meeting with the Noble Prophet (upon him be pace and blessings). Here is the translation of the Arabic passage I recited before Hazrat:

“Bahr al-Ulum’s bay`ah: he gave his pledge directly on the hands of Allah’s Messenger may Allah give him mercy and blessings, in consciousness by meeting him through means of Sayyiduna Abu Bakr Siddique, and he used to say “Abu Bakr is my means to Rasulullah”. The incident narrated by some of his students among them is his son in law Mulla `Ala`uddin, is as follows: when he migrated from Lakhnouw to Shahjahanfur and settled there, he was once studying late night in the upper floor of his home as usual whilst his students were busy in their studies in the lower floor, a handsome Arab man in his old age who had a lot of presence around him appeared and asked about Mouwlana. The students told him that he is in the upper floor so he went upstairs and gave salam, Bahr al-Ulum replied with greetings and continued studying. The old man said “do you not honour your guest?” Upon hearing this Bahr al-Ulum closed his book and attended him. The man said, “Stand, and accompany me, for somebody great is calling you”. So he did, and the man led him to a garden, and under a tree he saw a horseman who had veiled his face. Bahr al-Ulum was overwhelmed by the awe of this person. Without removing his veil, the horseman asked: “do you know the Satan cannot resemble the form of your Prophet may Allah send blessings upon him?” Bahr al-Ulum replied: “that is established in an authentic Hadith”. Then the horseman asked: “have you memorised the description (hilya) of your Prophet may Allah send peace upon him?” Bahr replied: “yes”. The Horseman removed the veil from his noble face and said: “I am your Prophet, and this is Abu Bakr”. Then Rasulullah placed his mantle on the ground and they all sat on it and he ordered Bahr to take bay`ah so he stretched his hand to the noble hand and done so.[8] One of the students had also followed in secrecy and witnessed this event from far without being noticed. Upon returning to his home, the student was eager to know and asked about this unusual event after Fajr prayer. Bahr al-Ulum denied informing anyone but the student insisted and indicated towards some of the things he saw. Bahr al-Ulum told him of the incident, the student regretted over his loss and wept over the failure to attain this enormous gift. Whenever somebody insisted to take this pathway of bay`ah from Bahr al-Ulum he would give it and would say “`Abdul `Ali took it from Siddique al-Akbar who took it from the Messenger of Allah, may Allah send peace and blessings upon him”. And great benevolence and enormous gift is not given to except the major Gnostics, and there is no doubt in the authenticity of this bay`ah, since the consensus of the Awliya is established on this and the reports of this kind are mass-transmitted. The author of Manahil said: “this consensus affirms the events when he saw the souls of the martyrs in many nights, mounted on horses meeting the people of this dunya and speaking with them”[9].”

Hazrat said: “Subhanllah! Loot at this amazing incident!” thereafter he taught me a wazifa to meet Rasulullah upon him be peace and blessings, which he received from Muhadith-e-Azam Pakistan Mouwlana Sardar Ahmad rahmatullahi alayh.

Allah Allah! This was Hazrat’s love for his servant.

When I visited Hazrat on the 8th of Jamadi al-Uwla 1427h at his home, he gifted me his newly released book titled “Muqaddimaat-e-Rizwiyyah” collated by Mouwlana Abdusattar Tahir Mas’udi in which the latter collected all of Hazrat’s forwards written to books pertaining to the great Imam of India; Imam Ahmad Raza Khan. I remember Hazrat was extremely joyful on that day and took me through it smiling, may Allah shower mercy on his grave. In its front cover he wrote the following passage in Arabic

إهداء إلى العالم الناشئ والولد الذي نحسبه صالحا والله حسيبه ولا نزكي على الله أحدا، إلى ابننا العزيز مولانا محمد منور عنيق الرضوي سخره الله لرفع رأية الإسلام عالية خفاقة. وأنا الفقير إلى ربه الغني محمد عبد الحكيم شرف القادري لاهور باكستان. 8 من جمادي الأولى 1427هـ

It was time for Salat al-Maghrib and Hazrat instructed me to lead the prayer. I, feeling awfully uncomfortable to stand before the Great Imam of Shariah and Tariqa of his era, hesitated from this but this was not the first time he ordered me to lead so I stepped ahead since “command preponderates etiquette”. He would instruct me to lead even if his student or son was praying with us and a couple of times he lead the prayer himself. It was Hazrat’s spiritual aid that lead me to the mat ahead and encouraged me to recite otherwise I never attempt to take lead even on a daily basis.

After prayer, Hazrat performed dhikr and taught me it whilst I sat in a specific way as he placed his hand on my heart (Lateefa al-Qalb) for approximately twenty minutes. Hazrat’s servant and student who stayed at his house, Riyadh al-Din of India, accompanied me. On completing the dhikr session Hazrat said, “I was once sitting with a scholar when Mushtaq (Hazrat’s son) came up to me and complained of a severe headache. The Shaykh asked for some water, recited a few words and blew in it, ordering Mushtaq to drink from it. After a sip, the shaykh asked “has the pain finished?” I sitting besides him remarked astonishingly “what did you recite?” he replied “I recited these words constantly 125, 000 times in one masjid for one and a half months”. After narrating this incident Hazrat said “SubhanAllah! These are the blessings of performing dhikr with persistence and especially the Divine names of Allah. If one has permission from Shuyukh and is persistent in dhikr, he reaps all of its benefits.”

Following Dhikr, Hazrat ordered Riyadh al-Din, to read out the masterful Persian couplets of Imam Ahmad Raza Khan in rejoice of the birth of Sayyid Ibrahim Miyan Marahrawi’s son, and their excellent elaborating commentary by himself published towards the end of “Muqaddimat-e-Rizwiyya”. The whole poem is written compromising terms used in the nomenclature of Mantiq and is extremely difficult to understand. Hazrat Sahib verbally commented on all of it and mentioned that he made istikhara and special dua for spiritual opening for many days before he was given the meanings of the poem! Hazrat’s Urdu commentary and understanding of this difficult poem is a clear sign of his mastery in the rational sciences. The reason why Imam Ahmad Raza wrote the poem in this manner was because he was teaching Mantiq when he heard of the good news of the birth of this son, from Balgram, as he mentions in the opening couplets. The poem consists of terms such as wadha and hamal with their abbreviations (jeem and baa, both with long madds), Shakl, Qiyas Iqtirani, Natijah, Tasdeeq, Hujja, Aks Mustawi.

Hazrat loved his students equally to his sons. He considered them his spiritual progeny and honoured them, illustrated kindness towards them and always offered them Nasihah. Once Hazrat came into the room around Zuhr time smiling and said “Aisha says something” Aisha is Hazrat’s grand daughter, the child of Dr Mumtaz the eldest son, and then called her and told her to repeat what she said. Aisha in a shy tone repeated “I will take Munawwar Chachu to Madina with me” (chachu is an affectionate way of saying uncle in Urdu) Hazrat continued smiling and made Dua for the acceptance of this word. On my numerous visits to his home, or via telephone, Hazrat reminded me of the words of Aisha.

When my marriage date had been decided, I invited Hazrat to my wedding in Kashmir. He apologised and I continually insisted that he should come and I ensured the comfort of his journey but Hazrat apologised due to the length of the journey (approximately 7 hours by car). After my marriage, Hazrat invited me and my wife to his home in Lahore, to compensate for missing the wedding, and we remained as guests in his home for two nights, but seemed like his children. He was tremendously pleased of our visit and made numerous supplications for us.

I have lost count on how many times Hazrat taught me Dhikr (talqeen). It must have been around fifteen times. The first time he placed his hand on my heart and taught me the special manner of sitting in Dhikr to keep the satanic influence away, Hazrat sang many couplets of Shaykh Attar, Jami and Rumi in Persian. I got into a state of ibtihaal whilst Hazrat was crying and singing in a frail tune. This was at the Madrasah of his dear friend, the servant of Ustadh `Ata Muhammad Bandyalwi; Mouwlana `Abdul Gafoor, on the day he invited us for food. My father in-law was present in this sitting.

Before making dhikr, Hazrat gave me the following nasiha, “the Ulama must master three things:

1. Oratory and publics sermons; this is important so that they can enjoin people in Good and Forbid Evil. But, words will diffuse into thin air and they have a short term effect on the laymen.
2. Authoring and writing; they must not ignore this important area of their duty. Words that are lost in thin air during sermons can be preserved by ink in books.
3. Dhikr and spirituality; the Ulama of the outward sciences usually ignore this aspect and remain in the conflicts of qeela wa qaal. Your realisation and proximity with Allah is the goal of your knowledge. You must practice Dhikr to bring life to the secrets hidden in your chest (referring to the Lata’if; Qalb, Ruh, Sirr, Khafi & Akhafa) when they are awake, then the entire creation attaches to you, and you attach to the throne in the realm of Light. Do you not ponder how many years it has been since Daata `Ali Hujwayri’s demise? But his shrine is attended all day and night, even the pigeons live on its roof, it is because his Lata’if are alive and are very powerful due to immense practice of Dhikr”.

On another occasion at his abode, Hazrat explained the details of Lata’if, their colours and secrets to me, and illustrated and taught me the five manners of performing Dhikr that are not enclosed to the public and are usually discussed with signs among people of Tariqah.

His manner of teaching Dhikr was powerful and one would be awed by it. He sat in front of me in the same manner that is cross legged, as I held tight “rag-e-keemas” with my right toe, placing his two fingers the index and middle finger on my heart “latifa-e-Qalb” and holding my crossed hands with his left hand or my right knee moving it rapidly, chanting Dhikr as I would look at his forehead. Hazrat once explained that there was a golden secret in this manner and later disclosed it to me. Then Hazrat would sing couplets on tawba and then shout “Huw Huw Huw” throwing a hand full of thin air at my heart, and crying out “Ya Sayyid Abul Barakat!” Alhamdulillah, I took this from of Dhikr on every visit and in most of my sittings with him, and on my last but one visit in 2006 Hazrat instructed me to start this form of Dhikr on Thursdays or Mondays with a circle of true seekers and told me that the doors of blessings had been opened for me.

I mentioned Hazrat’s passionate singing. Hazrat was a teacher of the rational arts such as Hikma with all of its subsidiary sciences, Mantiq, modern philosophy, and later he abandoned its teaching and diverted his attention towards teaching the mother books of Hadith. Hazrat was an Uslui (methodologist), Mutakallim (theologian), Faqih (jurist), Muhadith (master of Hadith) and Mufassir (Master of Quranic Exegesis) of the top rank. After having taught for approximately forty years, he secluded himself in his home where he rested his tired and ill body and occupied all of his time in `Ibadah, Dhikr, and writing when he was well. Hazrat was a persistent reader of Dala’il al-Khayrat since the time his Murshid; Sayyid Abul Barakat Ahmad Qadiri gave him permission and the Noble Qur’an on a daily basis. His spirituality increased immensely in the latter part of his life due to these reasons and therefore would sit singing Persian couplets of vast meanings compromising remorse and turning to Allah, humility and shame before Allah, munajat such as the following verses which Hazrat jotted down in my personal diary in his handwriting

عاجزي وانكسار آورده ام
بار عصيان بي شمار آورده ام
هم دو جيز آورده ام در باركاه
مو سبيد و رو سيه آورده ام
عفو تقصيرات خواهم اي معين
از طفيل رحمة للعلمين
از طفيل أنبياء وأولياء
از طفيل اسم رب العلمين
(by Mouwlana Jami)

بادشاها جرم مارا در كزار
ما كنهكاريم و تو آمر زكار
تو نكاري وما بد كر ده ايم
جرم بي اندازه بي حد كرده ايم
بر دو آمد بنده بكر يخته
آبروي خود بعصيان ريحته

(by Shaykh `Attar)

And other couplets:

صد كتاب وصد ورق در نار كن
روي دل را جانـب دلدار كن

در كنز وهدايه نتوان يافت خدارا
در صفحهء دل بين كه كتابي به ازين نسيت

آئينهء سكندر جام جم است بنكر
تابر تو عرصه كردد احوال ملك دارا

On one occasion, Hazrat gave me the manuscript of Awa’il Sunbuliyya, a text in Hadith, and told me he had completed sama` for it from a scholar in Makkah who gave him a copy of the original. Upon hearing this, I was overwhelmed with joy and eager to recite it before him and hear some of it from him. As I held it in my hand without placing it on the table, Hazrat realised what I intended. After a short while, he said: “put the book aside. You must occupy yourself only and only in the Dhikr I taught you”. I later realised that Hazrat wanted me to focus more on my inward as I had always restricted myself to words and texts. He knew I must purify my inner self for these Hadith to give their fruits. Even though I did not attain the sama` of the Awa’il from him, he did not deprive me of its Ijaza and recently sent a signed Ijaza for it through Shaykh `Ali Ahmad Sindehlwi signed by the latter too.

Hazrat was graceful upon me and also narrated to me Hadith al- Rahmah without my prior request.

Just before Hazrat’s demise, I spoke to him over the telephone and informed him that I had completed the transcription of the unpublished endorsements of the Ulama of Shaam on al-Dawla al-Makkiyya and that I sent him a copy of the published book through Mouwlana Akram Azhari, head of Bhera Sharif Branch in Lahore. Upon hearing this great news of futuh and success, Hazrat was delighted and made Dua for the betterment of my dunya and akhira. This was the last Dua I heard from Hazrat’s mouth and my chest has secured it as my ears heard it. This Arabic research is titled “Taqareez Ulama al-Shaam” and it received a forward by Dr Mumtaz Sadeedi, Hazrat’s son and Hazrat himself dictated some of it to me over the phone and the rest of it was dictated to me before him.

May Allah Ta`la reward him for His love, affection, and charity and join us with him in the company of Rasulullah in the hereafter, upon him be peace and blessings.

Writings & Translations
Hazrat is the author of numerous books. His commentary on “al-Mirqat” in the principles of Mantiq (Logic) is renowned in student and scholarly circles. Hazrat informed me that he was recently working on three things, a translation of the Qur`an in Urdu that was different to other translations as it disclosed all pronouns by mentioning the subjects in brackets, a commentary on the Divine names of Allah and he was using a rare epistle on the topic by the great Indian Muhadith who died at sea Muhammad Irtidha `Ali Khan al-Safawi[10], and a commentary on Sahih al-Bukhari.

Hazrat’s translation of Imam Fakhrudin Razi’s exegesis on the Noble Quran titled “al-Tafsir al-Kabir”, translation of `Allamah Mahdi al-Fasi’s Persian commentary on Dala’il al-Khayrat titled “Matali` al-Masarrat” and Urdu translation of `Allamah Fadh al-Haq’s Persian text “Tahqeeq al-Fatwa” in refutation of Shah Ismail, are three other notable works.

Hazrat’s interests in Hadith transmissions increased in the latter part of his life. It seems that this change occurred after his first visit to Egypt when over one hundred Ulama and students took Ijazas from him. Thus, in 2005, he authored his own Thabat titled “al-Jawahir al-Galiya min al-Asaneed al-Aaliya” in Arabic in which he penned the details of his Shuyukh in the various Islamic Sciences and their channels of transmission. Hazrat instructed me to proof read this work, re-organise it and publish it in more detail. I believe my Shaykh’s spiritual attention is towards me to make this affair and the other responsibilities given to me easy.

Among his other writings, Hazrat’s major concern in authoring was highlighting the blameworthy acts and practices that had creped into the Minbars, prayer mats and sermons of the Ahl al-Sunnah. He warned of narrating extremely weak and fabricated reports in Miraj and Mawlid talks, and stressed that people had lost adab with Allah Most High in their worship, Duas and sermons. His excellent and late work on this topic is “khuda kuw yaad kar piyarey” three quarters of which he himself recited to me.

Hazrat had an excellent style of penning biographies and is renowned for collating memoirs of the Ulama Ahl al-Sunnah in Urdu and Arabic. Hazrat once showed me a large document in which he penned Arabic biographies of the Sunni Ulama of the subcontinent in alphabetical order and had not finished with alif! He said he wrote these for them to be published in an encyclopedia in Jordan. Hazrat instructed me to continue this work from where he had left off. He also insisted that Dr Mumtaz Sadeedi shall proof read this work. Alhamdulillah, I penned three detailed biographies in Arabic for Muhadith-e-Wasiy Ahmad Suwrti, Sayyid Aal-e-Rasul Marahrawi and Sayyid Abul Hussain Nuri, may Allah have mercy on all of them, and sent them to Hazrat, he endorsed the work, was glad of the start and prayed for its completion.

Hazrat was also excellent in reading manuscripts and indexing classical books. On one of my visits, Hazrat gave me his copy of the Thabat of Bahr al-Ulum `Abdul `Ali Lakhnouwi in Arabic that he had proof read and solved ambiguities of its original text, and instructed me to work on it along with the Thabat of Shah Na’eem al-Din Muradabadi and al-Nuru wa al-Baha by Sayyid Abul Hussain Nuri and publish it with footnotes. All of these are manuscripts that Hazrat gave to me to work on. Books such as al-Nibras (sharh of sharh al-Aqa`id) and al-Ta`leeq al-Mujalli (a marginal note on Munya al-Musalli) of Muhadith-e-Surti are indexed by Hazrat. Both of these texts are very delicate and are annotations of mother books.

Meetings with Arab Ulama
`Allamah `Abdul Hakim Sharaf Qadiri met several Arab Ulama. In his last visit to the Haramayn during the first days of Ramadhan 2006, he met with Shaykh Muhammad `Awwama, Sayyid Malik al-`Arabi Sanusi and many other Ulama. In his earlier travels, he visited Sayyid Muhammad `Alawi Maliki Makki at his home in Makka for the first time where Hazrat delivered a khutba at a Mawlid. Sayyid Muhammad `Alawi had great love for Hazrat and met him in Jamia Na`eemiya when he went to Lahore and thirdly in Karachi. Hazrat told me that he took Ijaza in Hadith from Sayyid Muammad `Alawi on the second meeting in Lahore. Hazrat said “I was sitting near him in the ceremony at Na’eemiya. He placed something in the Ijaza[11] and gave it to me. Later, upon opening the Ijaza, I saw a few hundred dollars and was shocked by the generosity of the Sayyid!” Hazrat narrated this incident and smiled. “Look at the akhlaq of the Sunni Ulama in the Arabs. It is very high and they are excellent examples” remarked Hazrat. Thereafter Hazrat praised the akhlaq of Sayyid Yusuf Hashim Rifa`i who was a dear friend of his, and encouraged me to adopt the top akhlaq of these Ulama.

`Allamah `Abdul Hakim Sharaf Qadiri travelled to Egypt twice to meet the Ulama of Azhar the last of the two journeys was in 2004 when his elder son Dr Mumtaz received his PhD from al-Azhar on the Arabic poetry of Mouwlana Fadhl al-Haq al-Khayrabadi and his services in Arabic literature.

On one of my visits I asked Hazrat to spare some time to visit Damascus and he was delighted by this news. We agreed that later this year or latest next year, we must visit the schools and Ulama of Shaam with Dr Mumtaz and the costs of two persons will be covered by Sunnaconnect. On one of my later telephone conversations last year, Dr Mumtaz stressed that Hazrat wanted to travel to Damascus but unfortunately this programme of ours was delayed and an opportunity has been missed, and Allah knows best.

The Demise…
Hazrat passed away to the mercy of his Lord on Saturday 1st September, 19th Sha`ban 1428h, at 2pm at his home in Lahore. His funeral took place the same night at Daata Darbar at 10pm, filled by scholars and students of the Sacred Deen who traveled from different parts of the subcontinent upon hearing the sudden demise, and was buried besides his home, in Lalah Zaar Phase 2, Thouwkar Lahore, at midnight. The area of land in which Hazrat is buried in was the area on which Hazrat was intending to establish a Madrasah. It was recently agreed by the Ulama and Hazrat’s sons that Hazrat’s shrine will be situated in the new building of the Madrasah.

Hazrat’s second son, my beloved brother `Allamah Mushtaq Ahmad informed me two days after the funeral prayer that Hazrat had indirectly informed them of his demise recently. He said “we wanted to fix the date of Nisaar Ahmad’s wedding (the youngest son who takes care of the Maktabah Qadiriya) as soon as possible after Ramadhan. We insisted that the marriage should be finalised for Sunday 21st of October, a week after Eid. Hazrat also stressed that the marriage must take place as soon as possible but continually denounced this date and told us we will not be celebrating on that date!” Allahu Akbar! Now, Hazrat’s fatihah and major Khatm is fixed on this date.

Hazrat `Abdul Hakim Sharaf Qadiri has left behind tens of thousands of students, some of whom are founders of Islamic schools of learning; others are senior teachers and lecturers at Islamic Universities and tens of thousands of disciples and devotees. This is my story of joy and sadness both of which came to me at once, and there are many other accounts too, but this one is the personal account of a child who lost his father.

May Allah have mercy on him and be pleased with him, reward him on behalf of the Deen and the Umma the best of rewards, and give his family, students and murideen patience in this tremendously painful time, Ameen.

Please recite fatiha for Hazrat every time you read this account.

Dog at the door of Sharaf,
Monawwar Ateeq
Luton, UK
[1] Hazrat in al-Jawahir al-Gaaliya mentioned that he served Ustaaz `Ata Muhammad and accompanied him for nearly four years (from1958 onwards) in which he studied Nahw, Balagah, Mantiq, Falsafah, Hay`at, Kalam, Handsah, Fiqh, Usul, Munazarah, Tafsir Jalalayn, Tafsir Baydhawi, Mishkat al-Masabih and Jami` Tirmidhi.
[2] The scholars who combined between diraya and riwaya are found to have strict policies in giving ijazas. Sayyid `Isaam `Arrar Hassani of Damascus, may Allah most High increase his life with good health and more obedience, told me and Shaykh Gibril Haddad, on our visit to his abode in 2006 that Sayyid Muhammad Makki Kattani gave him ijaza after seventeen years of continuous suhbah and studies under him in Makka and thereafter in Damascus. Alhamdulillah, he recited the entire ijaza aloud to us which is framed in an extra-large frame in the handwriting of the Shaykh. This is also the reason why the Ulama of Ahl al-Sunnah of the Subcontinent are not renowned for giving ijazas merely based on riwaya or barakah.
[3] Old Hizb al-Ahnaf (qadeem) in Lahore which later moved next to Daata Darbar and remains there today
[4] Shajarah Haey Tariqat, p10 -12
[5] Shajarah haiy Tariqat p 14-15
[6] An incomplete photocopy of it is in print in Hazrat Sharaf Sahib’s “Tazkira Ulama-e-Ahle-Sunnat”.
[7] He is the author of many unrivalled books. “Fawatih al-Rahamuwt”, the commentary on Musallam al-Thubuwt is his renowned work. He is among Imam Ahmad Raza Khan’s great grand teachers and Bahr al-Ulum’s father Mulla Nizamduin was the founder of the renowned Dars-e-Nizami course. Imam Ahmad Raza penned a five hundred paged annotation on Fawatih that I have a copy of in manuscript form, Alhamdulillah.
[8] Hazrat Sharaf Rahmatullah alah in a note mentioned that this incident occurred in a garden of Rampur.
[9] Allahu Akbar! Bahr al-Ulum would see the souls of people who are in their sleeps meeting the souls of the shuhada, in a state of consciousness. Ibn al-Qayyim al-Jawziyya has mentioned in Kitab al-Ruh that this is true and souls do meet in this manner.
[10] One of the shuyukh of Sayyid Ahmad bin Zayni Dahlan in Hadith.
[11] I think he said Ijaza, or may have said an envelope.

Thursday, April 26, 2007

The Handsome Eyes of Our Beloved Mustafa

(May Allah give him peace & blessings)

In the following piece of work, I have given a detailed description of the gorgeous eyes of our Noble Prophet Muhammad (May Allah give him peace & blessings) that were described by many of his companions, and I have explained the Arabic terms used in Arabic to describe them:

1. The beautiful eyes were “wide” and “large” described as [1]"عظيمُ العَينَيْن" and [2]"كانتْ عَينَاهُ نَجْلَاوَين".

2. The Iris was "extremely black" described as [3]"أدْعَجُ العَين" and [4] "أسودُ الحَدَقًة" however the former more precisely means “a large eye with a dark black Iris having an extremely white sclera” "أدعج العين شديد سواد حدقتهما لكن قيد مع سعة العين وشدة بياضهما".[5]

3. The sclera -white part of the eye- had a touch of redness in it described as [6]"أشْكًلُ العَيْن", [7]"مُشرّبُ العَينِ بِحُمْرَة" and "كانَ فِي عَينَيْهِ تَمَزُّجٌ من حُمْرَة".

Shu`ba once asked Simak about the meaning of "أشْكًلُ العَيْن" to which he said: “an eye that has a long eyelashes”. Qadhi `Iyyadh commented: this is a misapprehension (wahm) by Simak and the sound view is that the word "شَكلًة" in Arabic means to have a complexion of redness in the eye as the entire scholars have agreed to and this is what the entire scholars of the science of unusual Arabic literary (al-Gharib) have concurred on. The word "شَهلَة" is used to describe a touch of redness in the Iris. Redness in the eye is a praiseworthy attribute and a handsome quality according to the Arabs.[8]

Hafiz al-`Iraqi considered this redness one of the signs of the Prophethood. When the Noble Prophet travelled with Maysara to Basra, Rahib questioned him whether he had some redness in his eyes, upon knowing, he affirmed that he is the promised Messenger.[9]

4. The eyelashes were “long” and “full” described as "أًَهْدَبُ الأَشفار" .[10]

5. The eyelashes were naturally dark black as if kuhl had been applied to them described as "أكْحل العَينَين" [11]

6. The blessed eyebrows were “long” and shaped like a “bow” described as"أزَجّ الحَواجِب" [12].
Al-Qamus defines “azajj” as “bow shaped and long” and al-Sihah defines it as “thin and long”.[13] Al-Fa’q defines it as “fine eyebrows that lead onto the end of the eye”.[14] Munawi adds “plenteous in hair and far stretched”.[15]

7. The eyebrows were “fine” and not “thick” described as "دَقِيقَ الحَاجِبَين".

8. The eyebrows were “perfect” and “never met in the middle” above the nose, described as "سَوابِغَ في غيرِ قَرَن"[16].

Sayyiduna `Ali, Umm Ma`bad and Suwayd bin Gafalah reported that the Noble Prophet’s eyebrows (upon him be peace & blessings) did meet, giving the Arabic description "مقرُونَ الحاجِبَين". However, the scholars have explained the sound view is that they “did not” meet and reconciled between the two reports by saying that if one was to “attentively” look at the eyebrows, he would realise that there was a “thin white gap” between them, otherwise it appeared as if they met.[17] The word that describes the non-meeting of the eyebrows in Arabic is "بَلج" and thus "أبلَج الحواجب".[18]

9. In the affairs of Allah, the beloved’s anger would appear as such that a vane would clearly appear filled by blood in between his eyebrows rising over his forehead, described as "بَينهما عِرقٌ يُدِرُّه الغَضَب".

Our Beloved Prophet's eyes (upon him be peace & blessing) were mentioned by many poets in Persian, Arabic and Urdu. Among the great Gnostics who often made mention of the precise details of the eyes were Pir Sayyid Mehr `Ali Shah in his Punjabi odes which he penned after seeing the Noble Mustafa in just outside Madina in Wadiy Hamra, and the great Mujaddid Imam Ahmad Ridha especially in his Qasida Salamiya, in which he described the entire hilya. The people of the subcontinent are always overwhelmed by these odes as much that my personal experience is that hair lifts up on my skin and tears fill my eyes when passionately sang.

Pir Sayyid Mehr Ali Shah says;

“The Beloved’s bow-shaped eyebrows appeared before me
And it seemed though the lashes were firing arrows”




[1] Narrated Bayhaqi on the authority of Sayyiduna `Ali ibn Abi Taalib & cited by `Ali Qari in Jam` al-Wasa’il (1:55)
[2] Qadhi Yusuf Nabhani cited this wording in Wasa’il al-Wusul p63
[3] As in a narration of `Umar bin Khattab and `Ali ibn Abi Talib
[4] As in a narration of Sayyiduna `Ali ibn Abi Talib
[5] Mulla `Ali Qari, Jam` al-Wasa’il (1: 31)
[6] Narrated by Tirmidhi in his Shama’il on the authority of Jabir ibn Samura. Ibn al-Athir also affirmed that Ashkal means “a touch of redness” in al-Nihaya.
[7] Narrated by Bayhaqi on the authority of Sayyiduna `Ali ibn Abi Taalib & cited by `Ali Qari in Jam` al-Wasa’il (1:55)
[8] `Ali Qari in Jam` al-Wasa’il and Munawi in Sharh al-Shama’il (1: 55)
[9] Munawi’s Sharh al-Shama’il, 1:55
[10] This explanation to the word "أهدَب" was given by `Ali Qari in Jam` al-Wasa’il (1: 32) and is also understood by the following narration cited by Yusuf al-Nabhani in Wasa’il al-Wusul p63: "وكان أهدب الأشفار حتي تكاد تلتبس من كثرتها". This description was given by Sayyiduna `Ali in the popular narration of the Hilya narrated by Tirmidhi.
[11] In a narration of Abu Hurayrah, and narration of Jabir bin Samurah cited by Tirmidhi
[12] In the popular Hilya narration by Hind bin Abi Haala cited by Tirmidhi.
[13] `Ali Qari in Jam` al-Wasa’il (1:43)
[14] Munawi in Sharh al-Shama’il (1:43)
[15] Ibid
[16] In the popular Hilya narration of Hind bin Abi Haala cited by Tirmidhi.
[17] Ibn al-Athir in al-Nihaya, Yusuf al-Nabhani in Wasa’il al-Wusul p 73, `Ali Qari in Jam` al-Wasa’il (1:44)
[18] `Ali Qari, Jam` al-Wasa’il (1:44)

Sunday, April 22, 2007

Mufti `Ali Hussain Maliki Makki

Two Stories from Shaykh `Ali Hussain Makki’s unpublished “al-Hady al-Taam” on celebrating the Mawlid & Qiyam

Shaykh Ali Hussain Maliki ~ Biography

Shaykh `Ali Hussain Maliki, Master of the fundamental and subsidiary Islamic sciences, jurist & teacher at the Makkan Haram and at Madrasa Dar al-`Ulum al-Deeniya. He was reffered to as ((Seebwayh al-`Asr)). His father Shaykh Hussain bin Ibrahim Maliki, who passed away when Shaykh `Ali was five, and elder brother Shaykh `Abid Hussain Maliki al-Azhari (d.1340h)- student of Imam Ahmad Bin Zayni Dahlan & Haji Rahmatullah Keerwani, also teacher of Sayyid `Abbas Maliki and Shaykh Umar bin Hamdan Mahrisi- were both illustrious qadhis of Makka. The family was originally from Morocco and lived in Makka where Shaykh `Ali was born in 1287h. He later became the Maliki Mufti of the Haram and authored numerous works in various sciences, among them are “al-Sawanih al-Fakhira fi `Ilm al-Munazarah”, “Tahdheeb al-Furuq fi Usul al-Fiqh”, “Tadrib al-Tullab fi al-Nahw”, “Nayl al-Umniya bi sharh al-`Azziya”, "al-Qawati` al-Burhaniyya fi bayani Ifki Gulam Ahmad wa Atba`ihi al-Qaadyaniyya" in refutation of the Deviant Mirza Gulam Ahmad, and “al-Hady al-Taam wa fi bayan al-Mawlid wa ma U`uteed fihi min al-Qiyam”. He was the greatest teacher of Sayyid `Alawi Maliki the father of the late Muhadith of Makka Sayyid Muhammad `Alawi Maliki, after Sayyid `Abbas as mentioned in Fihrist al-Shuyukh wa al-Asaneed p32. He was the first Arab scholar to pen a lengthy poem in praise of Imam Ahmad Ridha Khan al-Birelwi, and endorsed the latter’s al-Dawla al-Makkiyya and Hussam al-Haramayn as he also took the Qadiri Rizvi Tariqa from him and Ijaza in the Noble hadith and Islamic sciences which is documented in the latter’s “al-Ijaazaat al-Matina li-`Ulama-i Bakkata wa al-Madina”. His personal library was endowed to the Makkan Library and remains there until today. He passed away in Ta'if in1367h. His student, Shaykh Yasin Fadani Makki authored a thabat pertaining to the chains of the Shaykh entitled "al-Maslak al-Jaliy fi Asaneed Fadheelat al-Shaykh Muhammad `Ali".
The Shaykh's biography is detailed in "Siyar wa Tarajim" by `Umar `Abd al-Jabbar Makki, published by Maktaba Tihama Jedda, and in "Tashneef al-Isma`" by Shaykh Mahmud Sa`eed Mamduh publihsed by Dar al-Shabab, Cairo.

Sayyid `Abbas Maliki ~ The Qiyam of an Old Man

Shaykh `Ali Hussain Maliki says: “Sayyid `Alawi Maliki narrated the following incident that once his father Sayyid `Abbas Maliki, may Allah have mercy on him, participated in a Mawlid gathering in Bayt al-Maqdis on the night of `Eid al-Milad al-Nabawi during the recital of Barzanji’s Mawlid, where he saw a white haired old man standing with much respect listening to the recitation from beginning to end. Upon asking him why he stood all the way through despite his old age, he replied that he never used to stand during the mention of the Prophet’s Mawlid and he deemed it a reprehensible innovation until one night he saw a group of people preparing themselves to receive and welcome the Noble Prophet, Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him, and when the Noble moon appeared and the his light shun, the group stood up but he was unable to stand. The Messenger of Allah, Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him, said to him: you cannot stand! When he woke up, he was seated and was unable to stand for one whole year. He made a vow that if Allah heals him he will stand from the beginning of the Mawlid recitation till the end and so he did and was cured immediately. He told Sayyid `Abbas that he continues practicing this in honour of the Messenger of Allah, may give him peace and blessings!

Sayyid Muhammad Ja`far Kattani ~ Rasulullah’s presence in Majalis al-Dhikr

Sayyid Muhammad bin Ja`far Kattani was asked about the Noble Messenger’s embodiment of Divine traits to which he said: He, Allah give him peace and blessings, informed us that Allah Most high said: “I am the companion (jalees) of the one who remembers me” and in a variant “I am with the one who remembers me” thus he, May Allah give him peace and blessings, is present with the one who remembers him in every place he is remembered with his Noble soul. An event that supports the latter is which Sayyid Kattani mentioned: Shaykh Ibn `Allan Makki was once reciting Sahih al-Bukhari in Hijr Isma`il in Makka when only three sittings were remaining for its completion. A student sought permission from the shaykh to leave for the visitation of the Noble Messenger in Madina before the completion whereupon the Shaykh asked him to delay his travel and remain in Makka until he completed the hearing of the entire recitation but the student hastened and prepared to leave the following morning. The night before his journey, he slept and saw the Noble Prophet, Allah give him peace and blessings, in his dream mounted on a camel coming from Madina whereby he questioned in amazement to which the Noble Prophet, Upon him be peace and blessings, said he was going to Makka to attend the khatm of Ibn `Allan’s recitation of Sahih al-Bukhari! The next morning the student cancelled his trip and attended the recitation gathering informing the Shaykh of the dream, who was delighted to here this great news and gave him glad tidings.

“Al-Hady al-Taam” remains a manuscript at the Makkan Library and is dated 1360h in the handwriting of the author, may Allah have mercy on him. It contains a two paged refutation of `Abdul Majeed Deobandi in its end and is followed by a section on Shaykh `Ali Hussain’s ijaza from Shah `Abdul Haq Ilahabadi Makki, the pillar upon whom Imam Ahmad Ridha relied on in Hijaz, and his hadith chains.

Thursday, March 15, 2007

يوم الإمام الأكبر المجدد أحمد رضا حان 25 صفر المظفر 1340هـ

نبذة من سيرة الإمام الأكبر المجدد أحمد رضا خان البَرَيلوي

ولد إمامنا الأكبر المجدد أحمد رضا خان البَرَيلَوي القادري في الهند
سنة 1272 الهجرية وأخذ العلوم عن والده العلامة الكبير المفتي نقي علي خان وغيره، والطريقة عن العلامة الكبير السيد آل الرسول المارَهرَوي تلميذ الشاه عبد العزيز الدهلوي. تبحر في كل علم وفن وصنف فيها وترك في التراث العلمي أكثر من ألف كتاب ما بين تأليف وحواشي طبع أكثرها في باكستان والهند وبعضها من تركيا[1]. إتفق علي إمامته العلماء الأعلام من الحرمين، والمغرب، والشام الشريف، وتونس، وحضرموت، والهند، وشهدوا له بالعلم والفضل والإتقان في كل العلوم، واستغربوا من غزارة علمه وقوة ذاكرته. منهم من قرظ علي كتبه منها "فتاوي الحرمين برجف ندوة المين" سنة 1317 هـ، و"المعتمد المستند بناء نجاة الأبد"[2] حاشية في العقيدة رد فيها علي كبراء الوهابية في الهند وعلي غيرهم، و"الدولة المكية بالمادة الغيبية"[3] ومنهم من استجازه في العلوم والطرق الصوفية فأجازهم بنصوص مختلفة جمعها نجله الأكبر حجة الإسلام حامد رضا خان في كتاب سماه "الإجازات المتينة لعلماء بكة والمدينة"[4]. قرض العلامة محمد علي بن حسين المالكي المكي والعلامة موسي علي الأزهري وغيرهم قصائد في مدحه. لما رأه العلامة الإمام السيد حسين جمل الليل بن صالح بن سالم المكي الخطيب أخذ جبينه وقال: "إني لأجد نور الله من هذا الجبين" ولقبه "ضياء الدين أحمد" وأجازه بسنده الخاص وأدخله في الطريقة وذلك قرب المقام في المسجد الحرام وطلب منه أن يشرح كتابه المنظوم "الجوهرة المضيئة" في مناسك الحج في اللغة الأردية فشرحه خلال ساعات وقارنه بالفقه الحنفي وسماه "نقاء النيرة" وذلك سنة 1295 هـ[5]، وفي نفس السفرة للحج أجازه مفتي مكة عبد الرحمن سراج والعلامة الشهير أحمد بن زيني دحلان. توفي – تغمده الله تعالي في رحمته- ببَرَيلِي و دفن بها سنة 1340 هـ.

مكانة الإمام في أنظار علماء الهند

العلامة السيد آل الرسول المارَهْرَوِي- تلميذ الشاه عبد العزيز الدهلوي، شيخ الإمام أحمد رضا خان في الطرق الصوفية-:
قال عنه شيخه الشاه السيد آل الرسول "لو يسألني ربي يوم العرض عليه بماذا أتيت يا آل الرسول؟ فأقدم ذاك اليوم مريدي أحمد رضا".

العلامة المعمر المحدث الشيح فضل الرحمن المرادآبادي – تلميذ الشاه عبد العزيز الدهلوي-: زاره الإمام أحمد رضا خان في المرادآباد في عام 1311هـ لأول مرة وكان معه في هذه السفرة التاريخية المحدث وصي أحمد السورتي والعلامة أحمد حسن الكانفوري-خليفة الحاج إمداد الله المكي- فلما وصلوا البلد استقبلهم الشيخ استقبالا حافلا مع مريديه مع أنه كان معمرا ضعيفا، فلقي الإمام وأخبره بأنه يري في وجوده نورا قدسيا.

العلامة المفسر الشاه عبد الحق الإلهآبادي المكي- خليفة الحاج العارف إمداد الله المكي، شيخ الدلائل بمكة المكرمة، مؤلف "الإكليل علي مدارك التنـزيل" في سبعة مجلدات -:
يقول عن إمامنا البَرَيلَوِي "العلامة الحبر الطمطام المقوال المفضال المنعام النكر البحر الهمام الأريب اللبيب القمقام، ذو الشرف والمجد المقدام الذكي الزكي الكرام، مولانا الفهامة الحاج أحمد رضا خان..."

العلامة المحدث الأصولي وصي أحمد السُورَتي- تلميذ السيد أحمد علي السهارنفوري والعلامة فضل الرحمن المرادآبادي، ومحشي سنني النسائي والترمذي وأنوار التنزيل وشرح معاني الآثار-:
عاصرالمحدث السورتي الإمام المجدّد أحمد رضا خان البَرَيْلوي وكان أقرب الناس إليه. كان يبجله ويكرمه ويراه "مجددا للمئة الرابعة عشر" مع كونه أسنّ منه بعشرين سنة، وكان بينهما علاقة إنسجامية ومودة أكيدة. يقول المحدث السورتي عن مقام هذا الهمام في "التعليق المجلي لما في منية المصلي" ص418:
"زبدة العلماء المحققين، عمدة الفضلاء المدققين، صاحب الحجة القاهرة، مجدد المائة الحاضرة، ناشر السنة، قامع البدعة، سيدنا العلامة ومولانا الفهامة المولوي أحمد رضا خان البَرَيلَوِي".

ومدحه العلامة عبد السميع الرامفوري- أجل خلفاء الحاج إمداد الله المكي وتلاميذ الحاج رحمة الله الكيرواني في الأنوار الساطعة
[8] له ص 574: "الطمطام العزير والصلهام الكبير مفخم المناظرين مسكت المجادلين مروج عقائد أهل الحق والدين قالع أصول المبتدعين فريد العصر ووحيد الزمان مولانا محمد أحمد رضا خان".

العلامة مولانا الشيخ أحمد بن ضياء الدين الصابري الإمدادي الهندي أصلا المكي نشأ– أجل خلفاء الحاج الشاه إمداد الله المكي وأقدم تلاميذ الحاج رأس العلماء بالبلد الحرام رحمة الله الكيرواني، مدرس الحرم والمدرسة الأحمدية بمكة المكرمة-:
"هو التقي الفاضل، والنقي الكامل، عمدة المتأخرين، وأسوة المتقدمين، فخر الأعيان، مولانا المولوي الشيخ محمد أحمد رضا خان..."
ويقول في تقريظه لـ "فتاوي الحرمين برجف ندوة المين" ص56: "... كيف لا وهو التقي النقي العالم العامل والفاضل الكامل الأديب الأريب الحسيب النسيب الحاوي جميع العلوم من المنطوق والمفهوم محي الشريعة السنية ومؤيد الطريقة المرضية الملك السعيد والفلك الفريد سراج الزمان مولانا المولوي الحاج أحمد رضا خان ابن الفاضل مولانا المولوي محمد تقي علي خان"

خطبة تاريخية ألقاها في حفلة تأسيس "مدرسة الحديث" بمشهد الأعيان:

. بذل مولانا المحدث السورتي جهوده المقلة لتعمير "مدرسة الحديث" بـ"بِيلي بِهيت" واستدعي محبوبه العالم الفائق في جميع العلوم الإمام أحمد رضا خان لتأسيسها سنة 1301- وذلك يشهد لصفاء قلبه ونقاء سريرته وحسن عشرته ومودته بالعلماء- فأتي وألقي خطبة عظيمة استغرقت ثلاث ساعات بمشهد أكابر علماء سَهَارَنْفُور وكَانْفُور وجَونْفُور وبَدَايُون ولاهَوْر، تكلم فيها عن تاريخ علوم الحديث وأصوله وفروعه، ونثر الدراري المكنونة وذكر الأسرار المخزونة وكل ذلك من ذاكرته، فأدهش العلماء وأعجب الفضلاء لقوة ذاكرته وسعة اطلاعه في أسماء الرجال، وكثرة حفظ متون الأحاديث مع أسانيدها ومصادرها وعمق فهمه لدقائق المباحث واستحضارها، فاعترفوا بعلمه وأثنوا عليه لعبقريته فقام منهم العلامة النبيل خليل أحمد ابن المحدث الجليل الشهير في الآفاق السيد أحمد علي السهارنفوري وقال: "لو كان والدي حيا لأعترف بمهرتك في علم الحديث"، وأقر ذلك مولانا المحدث وصي أحمد السورتي والشيخ محمد علي المَوْنكِيْرِي (ناظم ندوة العلماء) وجميع الحاضرين.

مكانة الإمام أحمد رضا خان عند قضاة عصره من علماء العرب

قال مفتي مكة المكرمة العلامة محمد سعيد بابصيل المكي الشافعي عن "الدولة المكية" للإمام أحمد رضا في تقريظه عليه ص 142: "أنها وقعت عند علماء الحرمين موقعا جليلا وقرضوا له عليها وأجادوا فيما قالوا به له وهو قليل من قدره" وفي الختام: "هذا ما تيسر لي من نصرة هذا الإمام الكامل". وقال في تقريظه علي المعتمد المستند ص69
[10]: "...وأحله (الله) من قلوب أهل الكمال المحل الجليل".

وحرر مفتي الحنفية عبد الله بن عبد الرحمن سراج بمكة المكرمة علي الدولة المكية ص 143: " ...أما بعد: فله الحمد جل وعلا قد أوجد العلماء في الأعصار والأمصار، وجدد بهم الدين، وأودع في قلوبهم من الأسرار والأنوار، ما أوزعت به نفوسهم تمام التبيين، وضمائرهم كمال التحقيق واليقين، وإن منهم العلامة الفهامة الهمام والعمدة الدراكة ألا! إنه ملك العلماء الأعلام الذي حقق لنا قول القائل الماهر: "كم ترك الأول للآخر"."

قال مفتي المالكية عابد حسين المالكي المكي في تقريظه علي المعتمد المستند ص 103: "لما وفق الله لإحياء دينه القويم في هذا القرن ذي الفتن والشر العميم، من أراد به خيرا من ورثة سيد المرسلين، سيد العلماء الأعلام، وفخر الفضلاء الكرام، وسعد الملة والدين أحمد السير والعدل الرضا في كل طر العالم العامل ذو الإحسان حضرة المولي أحمد رضا".

حرر مفتي الحنابلة عبد الله حميد المكي علي الدولة المكية ص 146: "فقد نظرت إلي هذه الرسالة التي قابلها بالقبول كل رئيس" وقال عن الإمام : "و لو كنت علي وضوء لسجدت للله شكرا، علي أن من الله علينا بهذا العالم المحقق المدقق لازالت شجرة علمه نامية علي ممر الأزمان وثمرة عمله مقبولة لدي الملك الديان".

وقال مفتي الحنفية العلامة محمد صالح بن العلامة صديق كمال المكي في تقريظه علي الدولة ص 148: "اللهم زد وبارك وأطل عمر هذا الأستاذ الكبير والعالم النحرير ليكون غصة وشوكة في حلق كل مبتدع جهول لايقدر قدر سيدنا ونبينا ومولانا محمد الرسول وصل وسلم عليه وعلي آله وأصحابه وزد ترقيه في العلوم الدينية والفيوضات الإحسانية والكمالات الجمالية". وعلي المعتمد المستند حرر ص 72: "العالم العلامة بحر الفضائل وقرة عيون العلماء الأماثل مولانا الشيخ المحقق بركة الزمان أحمد رضا خان البريلوي حفظه الله وأبقاه، ومن كل سوء ومكروه وقاه".

رقم مفتي الشافعية بالمدينة المنورة العلامة السيد أحمد بن إسماعيل البرزنجي في مدحه علي المعتمد المستند ص128: " أيها العلامة النحرير والعلم الشهبر ذو التخقيق والتحرير والتدقيق والتحبير عالم أهل السنة والجماعة جناب الشيخ أحمد رضا خان البريلوي ، أدام الله توفيقه وارتفاعه".

قال مفتي الحنفية بالمدينة المنورة الشيخ محمد تاج الدين إلياس في تقريظه علي المعتمد ص112: "العالم النحرير والدراكة الشهير، جناب المولي الفاضل الشيخ أحمد رضا خان".
حرر مفتي المالكية بالمدينة المنورة العلامة أحمد الجزائري علي الدولة المكية ص116 : "علامة الزمان وفريد الأوان ومنبع العرفان وملحظ أنظار سيد عدنان، جناب حضرة مولانا الشيخ أحمد رضا خان" ص167 وعلي المعتمد المستند: "حضرة الشيخ أحمد رضا خان متع الله المسلمين بحياته ومتعه بطول العمر والخلود في جناته".

وقال العلامة مفتي الشام عطاء الله الكسم في تقريظه علي الدولة المكية: " العالم العامل والفاضل الماجد الكامل الشيخ أحمد رضا خان لا زال مظهر النفع العام بين الخاص والعام". مخطوط

وقرض العلامة القاضي يوسف النبهاني علي الدولة المكية ص41: "لا يصدر مثله إلا عن إمام كبير علامة نحرير فرضي الله عن مؤلفه..."

حبر مفتي الحنابلة بالشام العلامة مصطفي الشطي علي الدولة المكية: " والذي ظهر لي أحقيته ما قاله هذا الهمام و قد دل علي كثرة فضله وسعة اطلاعه وسبره" وقال: " والحمد لله تعالى على وجود أمثاله في هذه الأمة التي هي خير أمة أخرجت للناس ونرجو دوام ذلك". مخطوط

القبول العام لدي علماء عصره

قال العلامة القاضي الشيخ عبد الرحمن الدهان المكي مولدا ومدفنا– مدرس الصولتية وخليفة الحاج العلامة رحمة الله الكيرواني-: "عمدة العلماء العاملين، زبدة الفضلاء الراسخين، علامة الزمان، واحد الدهر والأوان، الذي شهد له علماء البلد الحرام بأنه السيد الفرد الإمام سيدي وملاذي، الشيخ أحمد رضا خان البريلوي..."

العلامة السيد إسماعيل بن خليل المكي – خليفة الحاج إمداد الله المكي، حافظ كتب الحرم-: "...كيف لا وقد شهد له عالمو مكة بذلك، ولو لم يكن بالمحل الأرفع لما وقع منهم ذلك، بل لو أقول: لو قيل في حقه: إنه مجدد هذا القرن لكان حقا وصدقا، وليس علي الله بمستنكر أن يجمع العالم في واحد".

وقد سبق معنا ما قاله مفتي مكة المكرمة العلامة محمد سعيد بابصيل المكي الشافعي ومفتي الحنابلة الشيخ عبد الله حميد في تقريظيه علي "الدولة المكية" في هذا المعني.

كان علماء الحرمين يذكرون محاسن الإمام وجودة تحقيقاته الرائعة في تأليفاته في مجالسهم قبل رؤيتهم إياه وكذلك بعد الإجتماع به. يقول العلامة الفقيه أبو الحسين المرزوقي الملقب بـ"أبي حنيفة الصغير": "قد كنت سمعت بجميل ذكره، وعظيم قدره، وتشرفت بمطالعة بعض مؤلفاته التي يضئ الحق بها نور مشكاته، فوقرت محبته بقلبي، واستقرت بخاطري ولبي "والأذن تعشق قبل العين أحيانا"..."

كما أن علماء الحرمين كانوا يذكرون فضائله في إجازاتهم للمستجيزين أنظر مثلا إجازة العلامة محمد المرزوقي أبو حسين للعلامة الراوية محمد ياسين الفاداني المكي يذكر فيها الإمام احمد رضا وذلك في 17 صفر سنة 1363هـ: "وقد أجازني الإجازة العظيمة العامة النفع، مولانا بركة الوجود وزينة الدنيا، تاج العلماء الأعلام، صاحب التآليف الكثيرة، والفضائل الشهيرة، المولوي الحاج أحمد رضا علي البريلوي رحمه الله رحمة واسعة، وقد بسط نجله محمد
[14] إجازته لي ولكثير من علماء مكة والمدينة المنورة وفضلائهما في رسالة سماها ((الإجازات المتينة لعلماء مكة والمدينة)) وكان اسمها مشعرا بتأريخ تأليفها سنة 1324 هـ. وقد طبعت تلك الرسالة وعم نفعها..."[15]

ويقول سيدي العلامة إسماعيل بن خليل المكي- حافظ كتب الحرم- في رسالته المؤرخة 12 رجب 1324 هـ إلي الإمام أحمد رضا خان: "وسيدي الشيخ صالح كمال ما من مجلس إلا ويذكر كمالاتكم، وبحمد الله قد بنيتم بأرض الحرم عمودين وأي عمودين عظيمين، وإن شاء الله شاع ذكركم في سهل الأرض وعاليها وأقصي البلاد ودانيها، فإن بلدتنا أم البلاد، وليست الأم كالأولاد".

[1] من تأليفاته المدهشة فتاواه سماها "العطايا النبوية في الفتاوي الرضوية " في ثلاثين مجلدا ضخاما طبعها "مؤسسة رضا" بمدينة لاهور، و "جد الممتار علي رد المحتار" في خمسة مجلدات طبع المجلدان منها من مباركبور بالهند، والمجلد الأول من "المدينة العلمية" ومن "دار أهل السنة" بكراتشي.
[2] كتبها في 1320 هـ بالهند ثم اجتمع مع علماء الحرمين المحترمين في عام 1324هـ أثناء سفرته للحج فعرضها عليهم وقرظوا عليها تقريظات رفيعة الشأن فأفرد تقاريظها وهي 33 تقريظا مع مقدمة وسماها "حسام الحرمين علي منحر الكفر والمين" طبعت سنة 2006هـ من "دار أهل السنة" بمدينة كراتشي.
[3] أثار بعض الوهابية من الهند علي الإمام أحمد رضا سؤالا في علم غيب النبي صلي الله عليه وسلم بمكة المكرمة في عام 1324هـ وأشاعوا بين العلماء حتي أمام شريف مكة حسين بن علي أنه يقول بمساواة علم الله وعلم الرسول و أن عقيدته باطلة، فأجابهم بأكمل جواب مع أنه كان منقطعا من كتبه ومستعجلا إلي بلد الرسول عليه ألف صلوة وسلام فأتم الحجة عليهم ببراهين ساطعة وحجج قاطعة فولوا مدبرين وسمي رسالته هذه "الدولة المكية بالمادة الغيبية" كتبها خلال ثماني ونيف ساعات! وقرأ العلامة صالح كمال الحنفي مفتي الحنفية هذا الكتاب المستطاب في مجلس شريف مكة بمشهد رؤوس العلماء فصدقوه وأيدوه وجاؤا إلي الإمام مهرعين سائلين مستفيدين أو متلمذين ومستجيزين، وقرظ عليه أكثر من "سبعين" عالما ومفتيا من جميع البلاد الإسلامية، طبعت أكثر تقاريظها في طبعة جديدة صدرت من "مؤسسة رضا" بمدينة لاهور في 2001 م. والفقير- بعونه ومدده تعالي- أول من خدم تقاريظ علماء دمشق منها وهي لم تطبع قبل. ولما رأي الوهابية أن عزمهم قد كسر، هربوا من مكة إلي جدة وخمدوا وهم "خليل أحمد السهارنفوري" وطائفته كما هو مذكور في تقريظ العلامة المفتي صالح كمال الحنفي المكي علي الدولة المكية ص147 ورسالته المطبوعة في هذه القصة إلي السيد إسماعيل بن خليل المكي في المجلد الثاني من "الملفوظ" للإمام أحمد رضا، واستتر بعضهم بالتقية في المدينة المنورة أظن علي غالب الرأي هو شيخهم"حسين أحمد التَانْدَوي المدني" مساعد السهارنفوري أو غيره، كما حذر عنهم الشيخ أحمد الجزائري مفتي المالكية بالمدينة المنورة في تقريظه علي المعتمد المستند، المطبوعة في حسام الحرمين ص116.
[4] طبع من "مؤسسة رضا" بلاهور سنة 2003 م.
[5] ذكر هذه القصة مولانا رحمن علي- تلميذ وخليفة الحاج إمداد الله المكي- في كتابه "تذكرة علماء الهند" طبع في عام 1312هـ من مطبع "نول كِشَور بَرَيس" بلكنؤ.
[6] "سيدي ضياء الدين" ص713 للشيخ محمد عارف المدني و"الإمام أحمد رضا خان وشيئ من حياته" للدكتور مسعود أحمد .
[7] حسام الحرمين ص 76
[8] قرظ علي هذا الكتاب أعيان العلماء منهم الإمام إمداد الله المكي ورأس العلماء بالبلد الحرام الشيخ رحمة الله الكيرواني والعلامة عبد الحي اللكنوي وغيرهم وهو في الرد علي فتن أثارها رشيد أحمد الكنكوهي وتلميذه خليل السهارنفوري، موجود في السوق متداول في أيدي العلماء.
[9] حسام الحرمين علي منحر الكفر والمين ص 101
[10] أرقام الصفحات التالية من تقاريظ "المعتمد المستند" من "حسام الحرمين علي منحر الكفر والمين" للإمام أحمد رضا ط. "مؤسسة رضا" و"دار أهل السنة" سنة 2006م.
[11] حسام الحرمين ص 97
[12] حسام الحرمين ص 78
[13] حسام الحرمين ص 80
[14] يريد به العلامة الكبير "حجة الإسلام" حامد رضا خان رحمه الله.
[15] "إتحاف الباحث السري بأسانيد الوجيه الكزبري" للشيخ محمد ياسين الفاداني المكي ص 108.
[16] الإجازات المتينة ص 34.
جمع وتحقيق محمد منور عتيق

Thursday, February 01, 2007

Helping Define & Understand the Obligatory

In light of Hanafi Methodology of Jurisprudence for the novice and skilled

All praise is for Allah, the Everlasting, All-knowing and Omnipotent. Peace and blessings shower upon our Beloved, our Master and Intercessor, Muhammad, upon his Noble Family and Chosen Friends.

To proceed:

In the Shari`ah, the defining law (al-hukm al-taklifi) is divided into several kinds based on what is required (talab al-f`il) from a mukallaf and what he is abandoned (tark al-f`il) from, or given option in (takhyir), among what is required are fardh and wajib, whose definitions are both easily misunderstood by the novice and their details may even perplex the versed. I have attempted, in this concise synopsis, to mitigate some of the lengthy theoretically intricate key points pertaining to the two fundamental laws, namely fardh and wajib, and illustrate their sub-categories and rulings providing substantial examples and explanations.

To understand the fardh and wajib it is vital to know about the nature of the proofs which establish them.

The Nature of Transmitted Proofs
(Adilla Sam`iyya)

The proofs in the Noble Qur’an and Prophetic reports are four kinds

The proof (dalil) may either be;

Decisive in its authenticity (qat`i al-thubut) & decisive in its implication (qat`i al-dalalah) such as the self-explanatory (mufassar) and perspicuous (muhkam) verses of the Qur’an, and mass-narrated hadith whose implication is also decisive

Decisive in its authenticity (qat`i al-thubut) & speculative in its implication (dhanni al-dalalah) such as allegorical (mu’awwal) verses of the Noble Qur’an

Speculative in its authenticity (dhanni al-thubut) and decisive in its implication (qat`i al-dalalah), such as a solitary report whose implication is decisive

Speculative in its authenticity and implication (dhannay al-thubut wa al-dalalah) such as a solitary report whose implication is also speculative

The first kind carries the fardh, the second and third establishes wajib & makruh tahrimiman, and the last type proves sunna & mustahab. [1]

Imam Ahmad Ridha suggested that ‘ithbat’, that is the level of knowledge (`ilm) or conjecture (dahnn) a mujtahid reaches regarding the proof, must not be forsaken here, as he also added that the type of demand (talab) stipulated in the proof must also to be taken into consideration. Thus he increased the types of the proofs from four to nine and then totally to twenty seven. He added, when all mujtahids consider a mandatory demand (talab hitmi) decisive, given in a decisive proof, both in its authenticity and implication, it is fardh. For wajib, he added; if ‘ithbat’ is also decisive as to its authenticity or implication – that is when a mujtahid’s conjecture leads him to decisive knowledge though the proof is speculative in one way or another - it is fardh `amali, if it’s ‘ithbat’ is speculative too it is wajib `amali. He added to the proof that establishes Sunna; it does not stipulate a mandatory demand, rather, it carries a stressed (mu’akkad) order (talab takidi) and its proof, in authenticity, implication and ithbat, is akin to wajib, hence four kinds. For mustahab’s proof he added; it carries an encouraging demand (talab targibi) which consists doubt (shak) - that is, it is below conjecture (dhann) - in implication, or authenticity, or ithbat, or in all, or is decisive in its authenticity and implication too, or carries a mandatory demand (talab hitmi) but contains doubt (shak) in its authenticity or implication, and the proofs that establish the mustahab are nineteen. Much more detail pertaining to sunna and mustahab can be found in his excellent epistle; al-Juwd al-Huluw fi Arkan al-Wudhu, published in his Fatawa. In its end he states; ‘‘this is the glowing and gleaming research regarding the proofs (adilla), so memorise it since you will not find it in other than these passages’’.[2]

Note: In this synopsis, I have used the words decisive and definitive synonymously to illustrate the term ‘Qat`i’, and conjecture and speculation to illustrate ‘Dhann’.
The Categories of fardh & wajib

‘Fardh’ and ‘wajib’ are commonly translated as ‘obligatory’ in the English medium despite they vary by distinctive differences in theory, and a many times synonymously used in the nomenclature of Islamic Jurisprudence.[3]

Classical textual-corpus on the Principles and Methodology of Hanafi Jurisprudence, in its common prose, defines fardh and wajib consecutive to their rulings as follows;

First Degree Obligatory
(Fardh, Fardh I`tiqadi)

. A mandatory demand (iqtida, talab-hitmi, talab jazmi) that imposes action & and binds the mukallaf with no choice but to conform,

. Proscribes any kind of change[4] since it is founded on the definitive authority of the Noble Qur’an, or mass-narrated (mutawatir) hadith, or mass-narrated consensus (al-ijma` al-qati`), or definitive analogical reasoning (qiyas mansus `alayh[5]) - whose original case ‘asl’ is established in the definitive nass of the Qur’an or mass-narrated hadith.

Faida 1. What is meant by ‘proscribes any change’ [la yahtamilu al-ziyadata wa la al-nuqsan] is that the action prescribed in the binding demand must be accomplished by the quantity or measure stipulated therein, hence the speculative proofs- those to be imminently mentioned- are not warranted to reduce or increase the prescribed action in any way. Hence, the daily obligatory prayers are five and cannot be four or six similarly the well-known quantity of units (rak`at) in obligatory (fardh) prayer is what the shar’iah prescribed and is not subject to change.

. the proof being free of doubt (la shubhata fihi); together in its authenticity/transmission (thubut) - which precludes the solitary (khabr al-wahid) and well-known reports (khabr al-mashur) both of which are originally speculative (dhanni) reports- and meaning & implication (dalalah) - which precludes general prepositions of the Qur’an that are specified (al-aam al-makhsus), allegorical verses (mu’awwal), ambivalent verses (mujmal), that are speculative sources (dhanni) hence open to differences.[6]

. Hence unanimously agreed upon (mujma` `alayh) by all mujtahids without dispute, and technically referred to as fardh i`tiqadi

Faida 2. The Hanafi scholars define ‘mashur’ as, ‘a report which is doubtful in its apparent [fihi shubhatun suratan] since it is lone-narrated in the Sahabah’s era, and achieves mass-narration in the second era, an era in which the narrators, namely the tabi`een, are trustworthy people and their acceptance of the report conveys certain knowledge (`ilm al-yaqin) but that which is inductive (istidlali)’, such knowledge which the methodologists alternatively refer to as `ilm tamanina given that the report ‘assures’ the mujtahid that it is genuine. This is why the well-known (mashur) report is warranted to dominate the Qur’anic nass unlike the solitary report, and you will find many examples for this in the commentaries of Usul al-Manar, and elsewhere.[7] Its denier is not considered a disbeliever, according to the strongest opinion in the madhab.

Synonyms (mutaradifat)

fardh qati`- since it is established through a definitive source
fardh `ilman wa `amalan - since it conveys definitive ‘knowledge’ and necessitates ‘action’
fardh mutlaq- the ‘absolute’ fardh and not qualified such as fardh `amali, the stronger fardh from the two
fardh i`tiqadi-since it conveys definitive knowledge, agreed upon by all mujtahids

Examples of fardh

Fardh in Belief (iman): belief in the oneness of Allah Almighty, and finality of Sayyiduna Muhammad’s prophethood (Allah’s peace and blessing be upon him).

Fardh in Actions (arkan): four essentials of wudhu, five times daily prayer, zakah payment, to perform the pilgrimage (hajj)

Fardh’s Value & Ruling (hukm)

. If the lawmaker (Shari’) prescribed the fardh in connection with an action, on not carrying it out, one’s entire action results null and void (batil), whether it be prescribed as a fundamental part (rukn) of the action’s essence (mahiyya) or as a pre-requisite (shart) that is not considered a part (juz) of the action’s nature (mahiyya) thus external to the nature (kharij al-mahiyya). In both cases, the action will result void.[8] If for example, one neglects the prostration (sajdah) or bowing (ruku’) during prayer, the whole prayer becomes void (batil), since both of the former are prescribed as fardh, hence a fundamental part of the essence of prayer and one will have to commence the prayer from beginning again.

Faida 3. Note that many texts of usul illustrate the aforementioned rule in the subsequent fashion: ‘when the fardh is forsaken in an action, the entire action results unsound’ [yafuwtu al-jawazu bi fawtihi’], here ‘jawaz’ is not used in the meaning of permissibility (hill) - that which is the antonym for impermissibility (hurma) - rather it means ‘soundness’ (sihha). This is what I understood from it, and later found Imam Ahmad Ridha who also infers this meaning in his unparalleled epistle titled, al-Juwd al-Huluw fi Arkan al-Wudhu.[9]

Faida 4. The word ‘fardh’ is sometimes spoken on the fundamental part (rukn), or pre-requisite (shart) and also on other than them; such as ‘the order’ (tartib) of an action that is not repeated in the one unit of prayer, since this is neither a rukn nor shart.[10]

. Acting upon it leads to reward

. Neglecting it wilfully is grave transgression (fisq), a major sin (kabira) and leads to punishment in the hereafter, namely, hellfire

. According to the jurists (fuqaha) and methodologists (usuliyeen) denial of it is disbelief (kufr), whether it is verbal (qawlan) or merely in belief (i`tiqadan),[11] due to the denunciation of an obligatory demand established by a definitive premise. However the theologians (mutakallimeen) are precautious in this affair thus do not consider fardh’s refusal as disbelief unless the fardh is also an absolute essential of the deen (dharurat al-deen/ ma`lum min al-din bi al-dharurah).[12]

Faida 5. The absolute essential of deen is defined as ‘that belief or practice which is recognised among the learned and laymen (awaam)’. For example, five times prayer, fasting during Ramadhan, Hajj, belief in Allah’s oneness and finality of Prophet Muhammad’s prophethood, belief in life after death are all absolute essentials of deen. The laymen mentioned here, are those who interact with the scholars and are connected to the deen, since many laymen such as Bedouins in the rural lands of India and even many Muslims in the west, are unaware of the essentials, not that they deny them, rather, they are merely unaware of them. This is what Imam Ahmad Ridha declared.[13]

Faida 6. The implication of ‘iz`an’ (conviction) consists three meanings; 1. Compelling assumption of truth (al-dhaan al-galib) and prevalent opinion (akbar al-ra’y) – both of which are included in certainty ‘yaqin’ in fiqh – 2. Certainty applied to a more specific meaning (yaqin bi ma`na akhass) – that is when the conviction is firm where there is no likelihood for the opposed, such as firm conviction in the oneness of Allah and as Muhammad as His Messenger - 2. Certainty applied to a more general meaning (yaqin bi ma`na a`am) – that is certainty interfered with the possibility of its incorrectness and opposition, established by no proof (ihtimal nashi la `an dalil) such as the person you see in front of you is Zaid, yet it may possibly be a Jinn in the form of Zaid. This last type is also considered ‘yaqin’ and mere assumption does not de-grade knowledge (`ilm) from certainty (yaqin) since it (ihtimal) holds no authority. The last two categories are those relied upon in the issues of beliefs and all of the foregoing categories are considered iz`an.[14]

Second Degree Obligatory & Wajib I`tiqadi

The wajib i`tiqadi is,

. A mandatory demand (iqtida, talab-hitmi, talab jazmi) that imposes action & and binds the mukallaf with no choice but to conform,

. Established by a speculative proof (dalil dhanni), whether speculative in its implication (dalala) only such as a mu’awwal verse of the Noble Qur’an, or authenticity/transmission (thubut) only, such as a solitary report (khabr al-wahid) whose implication is definitive (qat`i), or speculative in both such as a solitary report whose meaning is also speculative (dhanni).

Faida 7. The ‘Prohibitively disliked’ (makruh tahrimi) is also established by a similar proof, i.e. either speculative in its authenticity (thubut) or implication (dalalah).

Faida 8. In the Hanafi Methodology, a solitary report (khabr al-wahid) is not a hadith narrated by one person alone but is also that hadith which does not reach the level of the well-known (mashur) and mass-narrated hadiths, hence the term ‘khabr al-wahid’ encompasses a hadith narrated by two or more narrators, too.[15] Conversely, the scholars of Hadith Nomenclature (ahl al-hadith) consider all hadith solitary (akhbar al-ahad) so as long as the number of narrators does not reach the level of mass quantity (tawatur).[16]

Wajib i`tiqadi is two kinds; fardh `amali & wajib `amali

1. Fardh `amali;

The mujtahid, who deals with the proofs, by means of his ijtihad, finds the speculative proof (dalil dhanni) strongly binding and he is certain (iz`an) and fully assure (jazm) about it being strongly binding, hence regards the action as somewhat fardh, in context of practice, yet wajib in theory. It acts as a ‘barzakh’ between the two; fardh and wajib, and therefore neglecting it results the action void (batil) when prescribed as a part of an action.

This is the strongest type of wajib since it binds the mukallaf to conform to it akin fardh i`tiqadi, yet is established by a speculative evidence hence a degree lower and nearest to fardh i`tiqadi in the hierarchy of defining laws.

Value & Ruling (hukm)

. Denying (inkar) fardh `amali is transgression (fisq) and misguidance (dhalala) since there is substantial evidence to prove that one is obliged to follow speculative knowledge (dhann),[17] and not disbelief (kufr), since there is not certainty (yaqin) in wajib’s origin.

. A mujtahid, however, may differ with another mujtahid and interpret (ta`wil) the other’s stance by considering his proof weak and unacceptable for the evidence he himself finds. Imam Shafi`i upholds, for example, that one is obliged to wipe at least three hairs during wudhu (and in another report, one hair) to accomplish the obligatory requirement, as so Imam Malik upholds that wiping the entire head is obligatory, on the basis of their scholarly effort (ijithad) and level of certainty and doubt regarding the various proofs. Equally, according to Imam Abu Hanifa, reciting the Basmala and making intention prior to wudhu is sunna, whereas Imam Shafi`i and Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal uphold that both are obligatory (fardh). This disagreement is recurrent among our predecessors, and is not based on one’s mere desire (hawa) hence it is not considered blameworthy and sinful.[18]

. One who denies the wajib without interpretation (ta`wil), but maintains respect, that is, he does not make mockery of the proof provided, is misguided since it is a blameworthy innovation to reject a solitary report and sound analogy.[19] If one makes mockery of a solitary report or other shar`i proof, he is has left the fold of Islam with agreement among the jurists and methodologists.

. If one does not deny the wajib, nor interprets it, and ignores it through his desire, he is considered a transgressor (fasiq) since he forsakes the obligatory imposed upon him.[20]

. One who neglects the wajib will be deprived from making intercession (shafa`a) for others in the hereafter.[21]

Faida 9. A mujtahid is not bound to follow the ijtihad of another mujtahid, unlike the layman imitator (muqallid) who must stick to the madhab of his Imam and not depart from it unless in case of necessity (dharura). The issue of taqlid is a topic of its own so I will exit it here.

Faida 10. The Shafi’i methodology of jurisprudence does not differentiate between fardh and wajib, and names both of them wajib, though Imam Shafi`i differentiated between the two in the chapter of Hajj.[22]

Faida 11. It may be that a mujtahid reaches a particular level of certainty regarding a dhanni textual implication which is not reached by another, hence, the difference in the level of understanding produces differences in thought, methodology, jurisprudence, and schools (madhahib).[23]

Faida 12. Definitude (qata`) is three kinds; 1. The General Definitude (qata` `aam), whose decisiveness is well-known among the general public and knowledgeable people. For example, the absolute essentials of Islam, namely daily prayers etc, pertain to this kind of definitude. 2. The Specified Definitude (qata` khass), which is only recognised by the men of knowledge such as the agreed upon fara’idh i`tiqadiya, namely washing four limbs in ablution etc. It is classed as ‘specified’ since it precludes the public who do not reach this knowledge. 3. The More specified Definitude (qata` akhass), which is disagreed upon among the scholars as some are compelled to have certainty in its truth, based on persuasive external indicators (qara’in), thus definitive for him, whereas others may not find such indicators thus remains speculative according to them . Or it may be that one finds compelling indicators of definitude, yet alternative proof creates contradiction thus the case remains speculative in his case. Take for example a companion who hears a hadith from the Noble Prophet’s mouth, it is definitive (qat`i) for him and speculative (dhanni) for others. A Mujtahid does not prove the fardh unless he reaches the level of definitude; if all are in agreement of its definitude, the fardh is i`tiqadi, if he reaches definitude whilst others class it speculative it is fardh `amali. This is how Imam Ahmad Ridha explained the fardh `amali and he is the first to explain it in this comprehensible fashion.[24]

Faida 13. Denial of a proof (istikhfaf) is two kinds; fiqhi and usuli. If one denies the wajib without interpretation (ta`wil) but maintains respect, that is, he does not make mockery of the proof provided, it is classified as usuli whereas if one denies the proof with mockery (istihza), it is classified as fiqhi. As for why they are named fiqhi and usuli is because, the methodologists (usuliyeen) do not consider ‘istikhfaf’ disbelief, whereas the jurists (fuqaha) in their works, consider it disbelief, albeit unanimous agreement among both that mockery of the Shar`i proofs is disbelief. Hence the distinction was necessary and Ibn Nujaym suggested it in Fat’h al-Gaffar bi-Sharh al-Manar.[25]

Faida 14. According to Imam Abu Hanifa, the solitary report (khabr al-wahid) has a fundamental role in the shar`i proofs. Though his methodology does not allow the report to specify (takhsis) the decisive general (al-`aam al-qat`i), neither qualify (taqyid) the absolute (mutalq) of the Qur’an, nor abandon the apparent (dhahir) meaning for the majaz, as he considers this a form of abrogating the decisive by the speculative, hence unwarranted. This principle illustrates the Imam’s level of piety in dealing with the proofs as he feared excluding or increasing in the demands of Allah through unjustifiable means. Moreover, it also shows the value of the solitary report in the Hanafi madhab as one is obliged to put it into practice, and it may also impart inductive knowledge (al-`ilm al-istidlali) provided external indicators (qara’in) support it. Similarly, Ibn Hazam al-Zahiri recorded consensus on the view that Imam Abu Hanifa preferred lone narrations (akhbar al-ahad), even if they be weak, over personal opinion and analogy. For example, he accepted the reports on ‘laughter in prayer invalidates it and ablution’, permissibility of ablution with nabidh al-Tamr, ten dirham as minimal price value of object to entail the theft penalty, ten dirham as the minimal price for dowry, ten days as the maximum days for menstruation etc. What is meant by ‘weak’ (da`eef) in the salaf is sound (hasan) as stipulated by Zarkashi, Ibn Taymiya and others.[26]

Faida 15. A solitary report, when unanimously accepted by mujtahids (mutalaqqa bi al-qabul), is warranted to establish a rukn. For example, the solitary hadith ‘Hajj is `Arafa’ suggests that `Arafa is the fundamental part (rukn) of hajj, though a speculative report but establishes the rukn since everyone agrees to it thus the report imparts certainty (yaqin).[27]

Faida 16. The peerless Hanafi jurist and methodologist, Ibn Nujaym upheld that ‘the category ‘wajib’ did not exist in the Prophet’s era (Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him) since the solitary report whose meaning is decisively definitive (qat`i) is not speculative (dhanni) for the person who hears it directly from the Prophet’s mouth, and Ibn al-Humam also recorded this in Fat’h al-Qadir, the chapter of Imamate’[28]. The unmatched jurist of Damascus, Imam Ibn `Abideen continued explaining that wajib’s existence cannot be denied in the Noble Prophet’s era in the absolute sense (mutlaqan) since, there were companions who heard the report from another companion’s mouth and possibly did not turn to the Prophet for its explanation, hence the implication would be considered dhanni in his case, thus wajib.[29] Allah shower abundant blessings and mercy on the Prophet and his companions.

Examples of fardh `amali

Wiping the head during wudhu to the measure of one’s forehead (miqdar al-nasiya), that is a quarter of the head.

‘Wiping the head’ is fardh i`tiqadi, an undisputable demand stipulated in the Holy verse, ‘‘Oh you who believe, when you stand for prayer wash your faces and hands to your elbows, wipe your heads and wash your feet to the ankles’’. All four Imams of the Orthodox Sunni schools are in unanimous agreement on this. However, the difference is in how much of the head must be wiped.

According to Imam Abu Hanifa, one is obliged to wipe the measure of the forehead, though this is proven through the solitary reports (khabr al-wahid) on the authorities of Mugira bin Shu`ba, `Amr bin Umaya, Salman, Thawban Abu Umama and Bilal.[30] If one does not wipe at least to this measure, the entire wudhu will result null (batil). The Imam, Allah have mercy on him and his colleagues, is strongly convinced by the evidence that this measure prescribed for wiping is wajib (fardh `amali), as to his principle ‘when a solitary report explains the ambivalent verse, the ruling inferred is definitive (qat`i)’, it explains the ambivalent verse (mujmal) that does not stipulate the measurement of the wipe, thus the ruling (that is wujub, obligation) of this measure is taken from the nass, and not the explanatory solitary report.[31]

Praying the three-unit witr prayer in the night prayer (`isha) belongs also to this wajib category.

Likewise, washing the ankles and elbows during wudhu is considered fardh `amali in the Hanafi madhab.

Synonyms for fardh `amali (mutaradifat)

fardh dhanni, since it is established by a speculative source
fardh `amali, since it leads the mujtahid to knowledge which is definitive
fardh ijtihadi, Since its obligation is not definitive in the fundamental texts and hence is established through the effort of the mujtahid
fardh fi quwwat al-qati`, the obligatory that holds the power of fardh qat’i in regards to practice

2. Wajib `amali;

If however the mujtahid does not reach the level of certainty (iz`an, yaqin) in knowing the mandatory demand (talab jazmi) given in the speculative proof, the ruling extracted is known as wajib `amali. This type is near sunna mu’akkada in the hierarchy of defining laws (ahkam taklifiya).

Faida 17. Most wajibs are established from a solitary report (khabr al-wahid) whilst others are established by a well-known (mashur) hadith, or an ambivalent verse (mujmal), and or a mu’awwal verse, so do not fall into the idea, after reading the given examples, that the solitary report alone carries the wajib.[32]

Faida 18. The scholars commonly state, ‘the solitary report entails obligatory practice’ [khabr al-wahid muwjibun li al-`amal], this does not suggest that all solitary reports entail obligation (wujub) in the absolute sense (mutlaqan). Rather, its implication is that it entails practice when its implication (dalalah) is for obligation (wujub) – that is it will consist a mandatory demand (talab jazmi) in it- and not for preference (nudb/istihbab) – that is it will consist mere encouragement (targib mujarrad) - since a solitary report also establishes the preferred practice (mandub/mustahabb). Similarly, a solitary report may carry the abrogated (mansukh) hence impractical. Thus a solitary report entails obligatory practice when it implies obligation through a mandatory demand and when it is free from any hindrance (mani`) such as abrogation. This is what `Allama Sindi suggested in Im`an al-Nazar.[33]

Value & Ruling (hukm)

. If the action is neglected the entire will not render null (batil), though it will become deficient (naqis) and one must remove the deficiency to conform to the prescribed obligation perfectly. Hence, the rule [la yafuwt al-jawazu bi-fawtihi] ‘when a wajib`amali is neglected, the action does not render void (batil)’

The deficiency can be eradicated by a sajda sahw, when a wajib is forgotten in prayer and is remembered during it otherwise repeating the prayer (i`ada), or by paying a fidya, as in the rulings of hajj.

. Wilfully forsaking it is a minor sin, and on a number of times it becomes a major sin (kabira).


Imam Abu Hanifa upholds that recitation of Sura Fatiha in prayer is wajib `amali. Likewise, the takbir’s for the two `Eids, the prayer of Qunut in the three-unit witr prayer, to calm the body limbs during every action in prayer (ta`deel al-arkan), and most of the other wajibat belong to this kind of wajib.

Synonyms for wajib `amali

Wajib, in the unqualified manner, yet however, the unqualified wajib is also used in the meaning of fardh i`tiqadi

Fardh `amali & Wajib `amali

The theoretical difference between the two wajibs is quite clear; the latter is established by compelling assumption of truth (al-dhann al-galib) that persuades the mujtahid to believe that the mandatory obligation prescribed in the proof is near definitude (qata`), whereas for the latter, the mujtahid does not have strong conviction about the mandatory demand of the lawgiver (shari’), and reaches mere conjecture (dhann).[34]

The practical distinction between the two wajibs is that if fardh `amali is neglected the entire action results void (batil) akin fardh i`tiqadi and in cases of forsaking wajib `amali, the action does not render void and null, albeit deficient (naqis).

However both are established by a dhanni proof, while wilfully neglecting those entails punishment in the hereafter, and forsaking fardh `amali is considered a grave transgression (fisq) whilst forsaking the other is a minor sin (sagira).

The Relation between the types of fardh and wajib

Fardh i`tiqadi and wajib i`tiqadi are opposites (mutabayinan)

Fardh `amali is wajib i`tiqadi and not the reverse, hence the former is khaas mutlaq, that is, it is specific in regards to wajib i`tiqadi that is general (aam mutlaq)

Wajib `amali is also akin to fardh `amali in its relation to wajib i`tiqadi

Wajib `amali in relation to fardh i`tiadi and fardh `amali is opposite to them (mutabayin)

And Allah knows best.

And abundant peace and blessings be upon our Master and Comforter Muhammad, his noble family, upright companions and upon those who follow in their footsteps, ameen.

Research started on: Sunday 13th August
Research produced on hardcopy: Sunday 20th August

Munawwar Ateeq Rizvi

Main References:

Al-Nasafi, Kashf al-Asrar Sharh al-Musannif `ala al-Manar, ed. Ihsan Kitapevi, Istanbul
Asqallani, Ibn Hajar, Nuzhat al-Nazar, Matba`a al-Sabah, Damascus
A`zami, Amjad `Ali, Bahar-e-Shari`at, 2:5, ed. Maktaba Islamiya, Lahore
Ibn `Abideen, Nasamat al-As’har `ala Ifadhat al-Anwar, 1:446-7, ed. Mostafa Albabi & Sons, Egypt
Ibn `Abideen, Radd al-Muhtar, ed. Dar al-Thaqafa wa al-Turath, Damascus (new)
Ibn Nujaym, Fat’h al-Ghaffar bi-Sharh al-Manar, 2: 68, ed. Mostafa Albabi & Sons, Egypt
Khan, Ahmad Ridha, risala al-Juwd al-Huluw fi Arkan al-Wudhu: Fatawa Ridhwiyya, 1: 179 to 234, ed. Ridha Foundation, Lahore
Mulla Jeewan, Nur al-Anwar, ed. Pakistan
Taftazani, al-Talwih, ed. Dar Arqam, Beirut
[1] See: Ibn `Abideen, Radd al-Muhtar, 1:313-314, Khan, Imam Ahmad Ridha, Fatawa Ridhiwyya, p 1: 197-8
[2] Ibid.
[3] See: Ibn `Abideen, Radd al-Muhtar 1: 314 (new ed), Tafatazani’s al-Talwih 2:124.
[4] Al-Nasafi, Usul al-Manar.
[5]`Aiyni, Badr al-Din, al-Binayah Sharh al-Hidaya. Ref: Gayat al-Awtar, 1:55 (ed. M.H Sa`eed comp, Karachi)
[6]Ibn `Abideen, Nasamat al-As’har `ala Ifadhat al-Anwar, 1:446-7 & Ibn Nujaym, Fat’h al-Gaffar Sharh Usul al-Manar, 2: 68
[7] See: Nasafi’s Kashf al-Asrar, 2:6,7
[8] Qadri, Mufti Muhammad Khan, Ma`arif al-Ahkam, p117, (ed. `Aalami D`awat-e-Islamiya, Lahore)
[9] Khan, Imam Ahmad Ridha, Fatwa Ridhwiyya, 1: 184
[10] Ibn `Abideen, Radd al-Muhtar, 1:312 (new), al-Halabi, Sharh al-Munya al-Kabir, p12
[11] Taftazani’s al-Talwih. Ref: Ibn `Abideen, Nasamat al-As’har, p164
[12] Khan, Ahmad Ridha, al-Juwd al-Huluw fi Arkan al-Wudhu: Fatawa Ridhwiyya, 1: 180 & Badayuni, Fahdl al-Rasul, al-Mu`taqad al-Mustanad p212 (ed.Raza Academy, Bombay)
[13] Khan, Ahmad Ridha, al-Juwd al-Huluw, Fatawa Ridhwiyya 1:181-2
[14] Ibid, 1:180
[15] Al-Nasafi, Kashf al-Asrar sharh al-Musannif `ala al-Manar, 2:8
[16] See: Asqallani, Ibn Hajar, Nuzhat al-Nazar p50, 51
[17] Taftazani’s al-Talwih, 2:124. Ibn `Abideen, Radd al-Muhtar, 1:314 (new ed), al-Nasafi, Kashf al-Asrar, 1:295 & 2:8
[18] Ibid.
[19] Ibid.
[20] Taftazani’s al-Talwih. Ref: Ibn Nujaym, Fat’h al-Gaffar, 2:70
[21] See: Ibn `Abideen, Nasamat al-As’har, p165
[22] `Ali Qari, Fat’h Baab al-`Inaya 1:41. Ref: `Umar Misri’s Footnotes on al-Lubab fi Sharh al-Kitab. See also, Imam Ahmad Ridha, Jadd al-Mumtar Hashiya Radd al-Muhtar, 1:237.
[23] For more reading on the causes of differences (asbab al-ikhtilaf) among the mujtahids and their methodologies refer to Imam al-Shah Waliyullah Dehlwi’s unmatched al-Insaf fi Bayan Asbab al-Ikhtilaf, Shaykh Zakariyya Kandehlvi’s excellent manual on ‘The Differences of the Imams’ and ‘Athar al-Ikhtilaf fi al-Qawa`id al-Usuliyya’ a modern Damascene text on the subject by Dr Mustafa Sa`eed al-Khann.
[24] Khan, Imam Ahmad Ridha, al-Juwd al-Huluw, Fatawa Ridhwiyya, 1: 189
[25] See Ibn `Abideen’s Nasamat al-As’har who endorses this categorization saying: ‘‘this is brilliant, and must be memorised’’ p165
[26] See: al-Jawziya, Ibn al-Qayyim’s I`lam al-Muwqi`een 1:31 & 77. Main References: Gudda, `Abdul Fattah’s al-Ta`liqat al-Hafila `ala al-Ajwiba al-Fadhila, p47 to 49, Lacknawi, `Abdul Hay’s Zafar al-Amani p205 to 207, & p145-6, and his al-Raf` wa al-Takmil, p74-5 (eds. Dar al-Basha’ir al-Islamiya, Beirut)
[27] Radd al-Muhtar 1:314 (new ed)
[28] Ibn Nujaym, Fat’h al-Gaffar. See: Ibn `Abideen’s Nasamat al-As’har p164-5.
[29] Ibn `Abideen, Nasamat al-As’har, p164-5.
[30] Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal narrated the report of Mugira in his Musnad 4:255, Muslim narrated in the chapter on wiping the forehead and turban, Tirmidhi: Chapter on what is narrated about wiping the turban and explicitly said: ‘‘the hadith of Mugira bin Shu`ba is hasan sahih’’, Nisa’i in the chapter on wiping the turban with the forehead, Bayhaqi in Sunan Kubra; chapter on wiping a part of the head. See Radd al-Muhtar, 1:315 (new)
[31] Al-Mirghinani, al-Hidaya 1:12, al-Baburti, al-`Inaya sharh al-Hidaya, 1: 16, Ibn `Abideen, Radd al-Muhtar 1: 315 (new). Ibn Nujaym, in al-Bahr al-Ra’iq, disputes with Mirghinani in this issue, whilst Ibn `Abideen supports this principle and answers Ibn Nujaym’s objection to it in his excellent commentary on al-Bahr titled ‘Minhat al-Khaliq’ 1:14-15.
[32] See: Mulla Jeewan, Ahmad, Nur al-Anwar 1:294 (published with Kashf al-Asrar), Ibn `Abideen, Nasamat al-As’har, p164
[33] Im`an al-Nazar Sharh Sharh Nukhbat al-Fikr p31. Ref: Lacknawi, `Abdul Hayy, Zafar al-Amani, p 64.
[34] Ibn `Abideen, Radd al-Muhtar, chapter on Taharah, 1:70, al-Bahr al-Ra`iq, chapter on Purification, 1:10 Main Ref: Khan, Ahmad Ridha, al-Juwd al-Huluw, Fatawa Ridhwiyya, 1: 181 onwards.